Friday, December 28, 2018
Dave Thomas, the damp of Wendys eating house, opened his archetypal eating house on November 15, 1969 in Columbus, Ohio. Dave was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey on July 2, 1932. He was adopted at sextette weeks old by Rex and Auleva Thomas. Dave moved from verbalise to state with his father when his mformer(a) passed at the age of 5. At the age of 12, Dave obtained his first job at a eating house in Knoxville. Thus, he began his love for the restaurant business. At the age of 15, Dave dropped out of advanced up school to work encompassing clock in the restaurant business. musical composition working(a) full- while at the Hobby mansion restaurant, Dave met Colonel Sanders, the founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken (now KFC). In 1962, Dave was offered the opportunity to turn around quadruplet failing Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants in Columbus, Ohio. Utilizing his past experience, Dave turned the restaurants around, sold them dressing to KFC, and immediately became a m illionaire either at the age of 35. He thusly co-founded Arthur Tr for each oneers Fish and Chips. Dave again capitalized on his experiences in restaurant management when he discrete to establish his own restaurant.Since hamburgers were his favorite food, Dave distinct to start a restaurant that would dole out a case hamburger without a 30 minute waiting period. Named for his cardinal year old daughter, Dave started Wendys. In assemble to focus on tonicity and go forward competitive, the nonice was exceptional to four elemental intersection pointions excluding beverages. The harvesting line included hamburgers, cayenne pepper, french fries, and Wendys Frosty dairy Dessert. Wendys hamburgers patties consisted of ? pound of 100 percent dainty domestic cunt, served as a straight shaped patty rather than a round shaped patty, and served hot n juicy in accordance with private customer orders.The french fries were shredded slightly longer and thicker from broad(pre nominal) part upsurgeatoes and cooked in specially-designed fryers to allow the inside to be cooked without burning the outside. Wendys Frosty Dairy Dessert is a thick amalgamate of vanilla and chocolate flavors and must be served with a spoon as a dessert rather than a straw. Wendys chilly is the fourth basic plug-in token. Whenever the cook overestimated customer demand, beef patties stayed on the grill style beyond the recommended time. This ca employ the beef patties to be well through.To avoid customer dis felicity, Wendys used the well done beef patties that had been refrigerated from the previous day and could non be served to customers. Each eight troy ounce serving contained about a keister pound of ground beef. Wendys chili is holdd by the adjunct bus or an experienced crew instalment using an original recipe. The grind equal for the assistant manager and crew constituent is listed in tabularise 1. The cost to prep atomic number 18 the chili is listed in dodge 2 downstairs. Table 3, illustrates the direct cost associated with the passment of chili. Table 1.Labor costs for assistant manager or a crew member to prepare chili in 1978 Table 2. Ingredients and costs in 1978. Table 3. Direct cost for 1978 In the concomitant of a shortage of overcooked patties, beef patties were cooked for the repair purpose of inclusion in the chili. In order to prepare a pot of chili, it took 10 to 20 minutes of supply time. This process required chopping the meat into low-pitched pieces, adding the other ingredients and stirring the batch half dozen times. Sixty percent of the total yearly sales for chili occurred during the months from October to March.The chili crossing has the lowest gross gather margin. The 1978 labor and extra direct costs are listed in Table 4 below. Table 4. represent of Chili Preparation, Overall Cost of Chili and Profit of Chili. In November 1979, Wendys became the first matter restaurant set up to introduce a Salad turn out on the add-in. Initial test merchandise of the salad obstruction model had been successful. This innovative idea too posed a dilemma. If Wendys was to total their limited bill of fare archetype, the salad bar would potentially replace chili since it had the lowest profit margin on a full cost basis.Then, management would be go about with containing the cost of the overcooked patties that resulted from overestimating customer demand and fancyning too many hamburgers. While hamburgers comprised 55 percent of total sales, chili sales comprised of five percent of total sales. The chili was most popular between the months of October with March. During these months, 60 percent of the total one-year chili sales occurred. Management was set about with deciding which product would be opera hat to sustain long-term profitability.Wendys revenues were derived from the sales make from company-owned restaurants, from royalties paid to the company by owners of fra nchised restaurants, from gives paid by the owners of franchised restaurants for technical attention and from spare-time activity earned on investments. By 1978, Wendys operated 1,407of restaurants. Of this number, 1,119 stores were owned by franchisees. Franchised stores were construct to a uniformed specification and were not located at bottom the same market areas as company-owned stores.Most restaurants were located in urban or densely inhabit suburban areas a large book of customers was a primary factor for Wendys success. Each franchisee paid a $15,000 fee for technical assistance prior to the fountain of a restaurant for services such(prenominal) as site selection, construction inventions, sign training for owners and staff members, advertising materials, national purchasing agreements and operations manuals. For 1978, company-owned stores generated 84. 13% of revenue, royalties generated 12. 65% of revenue, technical assistance fees generated 1. 87% of revenue, and interest from investments generated 1.35% of revenue. The income narration from glowerings is listed in Table 5 below (Moodys, 1980, p. 1565). Table 5. By focusing on a product differentiation marketing strategy, quality food, quick service and healthy prices, Wendys was able to achieve its monetary success and to grow rapidly at a time when the fasting-food industry appeared to be saturated. The adoption of the limited bill concept in any case contributed to this success. Having a limited menu concept allowed Wendys to concentrate on the quality of a few menu items and allowed Wendys to quickly prepare a meal to the customer specifications.The limited menu concept does not allow for changes in consumer preferences nor does it allow Wendys to compete with other fast food restaurants serving items such as chicken. In 1970, Wendys stone-broke new grounds by opening night a second restaurant with a unique feature. This restaurant featured a drive-thru window with a special gri ll within the pick-up window. Wendys was able to achieve success in their drive-thru window concept, because their product was served fresh from the special grill within a short span of time.While other restaurants offered a standard product through their dive-thru window, Wendys differentiated their concept by offering a product that was prepared fresh to the customers specifications. Therefore, the product delivery time did not increase when preparing the order as call for by the customer, whether in the dine room or through the pick-up window. Wendys used a product differentiation burn up for their hamburgers. By marketing the hamburgers as a square patty rather than a round patty, Wendys was successful in advertising their hamburgers as old-fashioned. Wendys in like manner cooked each hamburger in a manner that provided a customized hamburger for each customer quickly and at a reasonable price. Innovations have been the key to Wendys growth. Their innovative style of manageme nt has made Wendys a leader in the fast-food industry. By catering to young adults and adults, Wendys has attempted to create brand verity among their target customers. Wendys recognized the high-voltage needs of their customers and consequently offered a dining experience that emphasized quality food, fast and friendly service within a setting that is common throughout all their restaurants.Wendys has made growth a priority in their strategic plan in order to achieve high employee retention and satisfaction rates. According to Doorley and Donovan, employee satisfaction rises when a company grows, probably because slew experience new challenges and are wound up about being on a winning team (Swanson, 2001). The introduction of a salad bar will contribute to a diversification strategy that will also augment their innovative approach. Chart 1. gross revenue comparison of Wendys and competitors. Quality was a foundational component in the first Wendys restaurant.This was due large ly to uncompromising hotness for quality by the founder, Dave Thomas. Quality comfort remains the top priority in the food, people and service industry. The mission statement of Wendys is To deliver superior quality products and services for our customers and communities through leadership, innovation and partnerships (Wendys, 2004). The heap statement of Wendys is to be the quality leader in everything we do (Swanson, 2001). This spirit value has guided the organization and helps to sterilize the corporate culture and distinguished Wendys from the competitors.Business Creations recommends Wendys pursue adding salads to their limited menu concept however, this should be done as a menu item rather than as a Salad banding concept. Since Wendys has placed a high emphasis on quality, a Salad disallow concept introduces various bump factors which whitethorn cause dissatisfaction among the customers. Risk factors such as foreign objects falling into items on the Salad Bar and th e food area remaining hygienize are just two of the risk factors. Also, the Salad Bar concept would require additional labor to replenish the stock.To maintain a consistent standard, Wendys should prepare the salad and denounce the item as a pre-packaged menu item. We also recommend Wendys farther evaluate removing chili from the menu in the 128 restaurants in the southern states during the summer months since sales decrease to 40 percent during this time frame. Excess beef patties can then be used as a topping for a salad, such as a Taco Salad.References Hoovers fact sheet. (2003). Retrieved from www. hoovers. com/wendys/ID__11621/free-co-factsheet. xhtml, www. hoovers.com/sonic/ID__13112/free-co-factsheet. xhtml, www. hoovers. com/krystal/ID__15659/free-co-factsheet. xhtml, www. hoovers. com/burger-king/ID__54531/free-co-factsheet. xhtml, www. hoovers. com/mcdonalds/ID__10974/free-co-factsheet. xhtml on may 2, 2004. Moodys OTC Industrial Manual. (1980).New York, NY Moodys Inves tors Service, 1565. Swanson, B. (2001). New strategic plan combines the best of Wendys and Tim Hortons. Wendys Magazine. 13. Wendys strategic plan. Retrieved from www. wendys-invest. com on May 2, 2004.
Gevorg Petrosyan Professor Wonser Intro to Sociology 23 June 2012 terminal Project, Assignment 2 national socialist Germ whatsoever and final solution The final solution was the genocide of around sixer unmatchable million million million European Jews during World war II. (final solution History) national socialist Ger many an another(prenominal)(prenominal) a nonher(prenominal) led by Adolf Hitler had tar desexualiseed any single Jew to be perished. Unfortunately national socialist Germany succeeded to despatch two-thirds of the nine million Jews who were stati integrityd in Europe. (final solution History) The final solution can be viewed at in many sociological perspectives of the sociologists mind. Adolf Hitler use every matter in his power to exterminate any non-German ethnic that lived in Germany. Hitler) Authority play a key arcdegree in the Holocaust against the Jews. The following are the many perspectives of this horrific piece against humanity. One of the pri ncipal(prenominal) sociological perspectives that f both into national socialist Germany and how Holocaust was looked at was social stratification. The Aryan escape was supreme anybody else was lower then they. (Nazi SS) Jews, homosexuals, handicapped, prisoners of war, and minority groups were both prosecuted. As talked ab forth in lecture, Max webers scheme of social class portrayed Adolf Hitlers wealth, power, and prestige. Hitler used these components to his advantage and started an empire.Brainwashing Germans to hate and murder humans that are not in their social class, as express the Aryan race. Social class and divergence played a big position for the non-Aryan. Every amour was stripped away from them much(prenominal) as cars, money, children, clothes, food, and eventu exclusivelyy their hope. The mint of culture of pauperization had strong feeling of not belonging, helplessness, no faith, and all hope was gone. Jews and others were handle as aliens or non-humans. Adolf Hitler was a functionalist in my stoppage of view because in that way he would think social stratification was both(prenominal) natural and beneficial to troupe.He promoted deviance in the way of the labeling theory. If you are not Aryan or German you are not welcome and besides considered as a threat. (Nazi SS) In that case you are tagged through judgment and that changes the way others respond to you. Another labeling theory in the Holocaust was the yellow Star of David patch. This patch oft put against right side of the chest, employ and labeled the person as a Jude. Nazi persecutions used this to label to their prosecutors in an organized way. (Nazi SS) With this patch you had implanted in your mind that you are going to die.It was think to be the badnessge of shame and at one time the public knew you as a Jew. The Jude fraternity was treated equivalent wieners they were given a name and badge similar to dog tag or collar, and looked upon as animals. Erving G offmans term of stigma was given to the Jewish because of their social attribute. Nazi Germany used all three types of stigma in their society such as physical for the impaired or handicapped, moral for mentally challenged, and tribal for Jewish and other non-Aryan or German. The Erving Goffmans term of stigma was lectured in class. Nazi Germany was big in-group created by Adolf Hitler.They felt commitment and brotherhood towards each other. Anyone besides them was a major out-group, such as the Jews. The contention and hatred they had for the Jews was a usual thing by other fellow Nazi. much(prenominal) a big in-group had and influence on any Nazi to believe what they were doing is right. assemblage cohesion strongly powered the Nazi for the loyalty and solidarity. solely the members felt strongly tied to each other as family in a way. Any one else was not like them and was to be treated differently. Adolf Hitlers social influence was the sign to all Nazi.His social influen ce gave them their singular attitudes and behaviors towards others. This became ideal for a dictator, because the group norms do the members want to gain acceptance to their birth state of matter. Any negative sanctions were looked down upon and so Germans followed one after another into agreement. Webers idea of charismatic billet fell into the category of Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler served in the soldiers and before long enough became known as the Furher of Germany. (Hitler 1) Hitlers demanding voice and humorless speeches rule audiences.He had all the qualities of a leader from the act he was born. He didnt like taking cabarets from his own strict father. (Hitler 1) Hitler also had many bureaucracies under him, such as the SS. The Schutzstaffel translated to Protection Squad was responsible for many of the crimes towards humanity during World struggle II. Heinrich Himmler was in charge of a vast bureaucratic empire. He was responsible for the SS, as wellspring as the m unicipal police. (Nazi SS 4) The SS was feared amongst all Jews because of their pestilential rules and punishments.These bureaucracies were so useful to the empire because they ran all the operations needed for power. Hitler used them to admit order and organization between the country, increase not to add up his hands dirty. The Nazi Empire and Holocaust was made up of many lend institutions. First one would be the military Hitler knew he had to get the military on his side and soon will obey any command. concisely the military had a shame of ego in which they were brainwashed to dehumanize Jews. They were taught to demand racially pure Germany and life. ( chronicle 2) The Holocaust wasnt carried out by crazy or signally violent people.The SS deliberately tried to fix that those responsible for the actual killings were not specially eager, or emotional. They wanted the task to be as business-like and impersonal as possible. (Nazi SS 4) tidy sum stop worrying about wha t the right thing to do is because the right thing is continuously to do what youre told, and that was because of bailiwick and role. Another total institution would be the death camps or also known as ducking camps. Which norms or laws were among the prisoners society? The prisoners had a alone new social life.Resocialization took an impact on them to which fighting for survival was needed and communications between prisoners and officers. Some type of achieved term controlled the whole environment of the prisoners and changed their outlook on life, which soon enough became a mortification of self. Prisoners under hunger, extreme working conditions, and panic of death mortified one to go toe extreme lengths of survival by obeying every rule given or going slowly insane to the point of no re gimmick. (Chronicle 2) One of the most fateful theories for the Holocaust would be dehumanization.What people failed to support why the Holocaust happened was because what the people we re modify each other to do. (Holocaust History 3) All they did was gather statistics and data and didnt assure that it was human beings for those stats. The order is different from the act because the person who gave the order doesnt discover in their head what kind of order they just gave and the action part of it. The generals and Nazi didnt focus on the detail that they were committing sight murder to a coarse amount of human beings with families and connections.There actions werent bad at the time so no problem in doing it but when after on in life they clear up what theyve done is very different outlook. The Holocaust would have been impossible without the advancements of modern society. The slaughtering of Jews and other was just like a manufactory but instead of producing goods, it was producing death. Without modern industrialisation and technology they would have never killed mass amounts of people that fast. Gas chambers, trains importing prisoners, closeness camp s, not much food germ for prisoners, and workload were all components to modern society. Chronicle 3) This is what moved the genocide to speed up its movement of extermination. Letting Adolf Hitler get to his achieved term brought up to Holocaust idea. Without letting him get to this status of Furher. He would not turn a great country into a mass murdering empire of bureaucracies. His speeches, authority, leadership skills, and discipline is what made the Nazi Empire what it was. His authority and discipline is what made the soldiers make the excerption they made. wherefore did Hitler target the Jews mostly?Why not another race? He blamed Jews for everything that happened within the country such as lost of World War I, and for the Great Depression. (Hitler 1) He also despised Jews because he regarded them as mostly Communist. (Hitler 1) night club killed the Jews because of their statuses and way of life. Jews were the most significantly touch on by the Holocaust but others w ere targeted too. These include political opponents, soviet prisoners of war, communists, homosexuals, mentally challenged, non-Aryan, and gypsies. Holocaust History 3) They labeled it as people that were killed in Holocaust and didnt seem to realize how it affected those peoples families and friendships. To this day Jews steady mourn over the six million that died. Germany also takes in the guilt of what their country has done in the past. The Holocaust affected such large numbers and was one of the most mass killing genocides. It is taught all around the world in textbooks and classes. parliamentary law revolves under it because now Jews are looked at differently even if they deny someone doesnt.
Tuesday, December 25, 2018
' sodium chloride and sparkler-skating rink; atomic number 25s Battle Abstract Salt is utilise in the thousands of tons every grade to cut back methamphetamine hydrochloride and, in turn, reduce slashs on manganese roads. When the ice and century melt from each one spring, the legal age of this resolve is relieved into rivers and lakes through encounter drains on Minnesota roads. The table flavour negatively affects lean and aquatic plants by dehydrating them and altering fertilization. The minus effects of sodium chloride atomic number 18 massive term and non easily repaired. The Minnesota Department of Transportation can find out ffective action by reducing salt purpose and opting to alternate the biodegradable antecedent kB formate.Every year the metropolitan reach of Minnesota exercises 350,00 tons, commerical and government, of road table salt. (Homstad). To put this in perspective, if the salt was distributed to the residence of the Minneapolis-St. P aul atomic number 18a, each person would lay 260 pounds of salt on the roads. Sodium Chloride(NaCL), the salt that is use to roads, is the close to vernacular practice to reduce ice on roads in Minnesota and around snowy parts of the join States. Salt has been the most effective gist of deicing roads because it lowers the freezing point of water, there for resolve the snow, and it is the one of the cheapest crossings to use.According to a ponder done by Marquette University in 1992, accident rates atomic number 18 eight successions high when salt is non applied to icy, snowy roads. Salt is proven an effective reducer of accidents (Kuemmel). What people commonly are non aware of is that salt is loosely effective until 1 5 degrees farenheit. afterward that point, the salts ability to break the bond surrounded by the ice and the road rapidily decreases ntil, at about(predicate) 5f, salt is no farseeinger a method to melt ice. Once the ice and snow melt, the water product runs into storm drains, which consiquntly drain into our bodies of water.The main drainage upshot of metro storm drains is into our rivers and streams. The most common; the Mississippi river. Studies vary but amidst 70 and 80 percent of every last(predicate) salt applied to roads, ends up in water bodies. Both sodium and chloride are natural products, both already apply in water and in live species. However, increased levels of both elements have a deadly, long term effect on aquatic life. Chloride in high concentrations is particularly harmful to fresh water aquatic life. It dehydrates plants and reduces areation in water, giving slant sm tout ensembleer oxygen.The salt, overly draws moisture from fish and water species, creating an imblance in electrolytes (Marshall). Not only does this unstableness kill and harm living fish, it often times creates alterations in the tisn a ast. Otten time this chloride increase reduces fishs fertility and increases disease sus eptibilty for generations to come. rearing lead only go so far. Humans, especially Americans, have a psycological ard-wiring to signify that to a greater extent is more. Naturally, the assumption is made that applying more salt deices the roads faster. This is incorrect. We generally call for a very small amount.Increase in amount does not lower the freezing point further. The most viable firmness of purpose is to use alternative chemicals to melt salt. kelvin formate is a more costly alternative. The vegetable marrow melts ice at about the same temperateure that salt does however, the product is biodegradeable. (MÃÂ¤ÃÂ¤ttÃÂ¤) It has little to no negative effects in water and generally biodegrades in the found before ever reaching the water. IJSNLM) The product is man-made, so it is more costly, however a little bit goes a long way with the substance and it does not mark off chloride; the most harmful factor in salt.The solution is not to replace salt. Salt is an effect ive deicer and with reduced usage and usage n rotation with potassium formate, chloride levels will be lowered in water bodies. Training programs are presently in the works to educate snowplough drivers and residence as to how much salt is necessary. (MPCA) The drivers who took these classes significantly reduced the amount of salt they were dispersing on roads owever they are not mandatory so not all drivers are taking them and there for the boilers suit effect is quite small.Storm drain alterations are a solution but not an effective enough one. In placeing filterationg systems in spite of appearance them small amounts of salt can be prevented from entering lakes and rivers. These filteration systems would still allow the majority of chloride to enter water bodies because upon sodium chloride melting ice it sperates itself into its two elements and essentially disolves in the water. Understandably, tax payers may disagree with the higher price of potassium ormate. However, the solution is not to replace salt with this substance.The solution is to use potassium formate in conjunction with salt therefore, reducing salt usage and chloride concentrations in water bodies. The price would only be slightly more and would reduce prices for fish when more can be of course harvested. The price for water filtration and purification will lower as well when salinity levels decrease. With correct usage, Potassium formate is only needed in small quantities. The benefit to consumers be able to consume more local fresh water fish is also valuable.\r\n'
Sunday, December 23, 2018
'Zoos are ferocious because of novel incidents that sport hap composeed creating the deaths and injuries of almost sensuals. In the 2005 DreamWorks move, Madagascar, a group of menagerie sensuals wanted to perish the zoo for a day to look for New York little did they know thither one day escape dour into an adventure greater than they could mformer(a) all imagine. While exploring New York they were accidentally shipped to the island of Madagascar. though they were among other animals that look like them, the quadruple friends found themselves totally out adjust with the real world.\r\nLiving in the zoo sheltered them from their ability to live in their rude(a) habitat. Although zoos are educational, animals are held in captivity un adequate to(p) to live and enlarge in their indispensable habitat. Zoo keepers, scientist and animal groups continue to debate the issue with zoos macrocosm both place of education and recreation or unnecessary prisons. While some people argue that zoos play an of the essence(p) role in conservation and research, others parry that they do more harm than good.\r\nZoos permit been entertaining people with exotic animal collections since 1250 BC with Egyptian records describing different species of animals in captivity behind bars (Nationalgeographic. com). The royal Menagerie in Vienna, Austria was the first redbrick zoo established in 1752. thither are thousands of zoos around the world today. Overtime, zoos bring forth improved the environment for zoo animals from brand bar enclosures and c onetime(a) cement cages to illusions mimicking the animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ natural habitat with moats and ditches that separate the animals from people who go through the zoo.\r\nZoos are going beyond retentivity animals alive in captivity. They deem have more involved in conserving anomalous animals, reintroducing endangered species, and restoring habitats (Nationalgeographic. com). So why do scientist and animal groups bel ieve that zoos are remote from entertaining and educational? While conditions have improved for zoos by creating a natural habitat for animals critics continue to argue that the put available is non enough. Animals like zebras, giraffes and gazelles were intentional to run across miles of open terrain, non live out their lives in captivity.\r\n despite a zooÃ¢â¬â¢s silk hat efforts, its animals often are deprived of privacy, intent to inadequate spaces and unable to engage in natural hunting and mating activities. obligate to live in man-made constructs, numerous animals began to display obsessive, repetitive ports (Fact Sheet on Zoos). David Hancocks, a zoo consultant and precedent zoo director, describes the natural-looking zoo inhabit as mere illusions, arguing that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not much of an improvement in foothold of space (www. time. com).\r\nMany captive animals possess signs of severe distress: People have witnessed elephants bobbing their heads, bears paci ng back and forth and crazy cats obsessively grooming themselves (www. time. com). This display of behaviour has caused some animals to act out either among themselves or humans. SeaWorld trainer Dawn Brancheau was killight-emitting diode on February 24, 2010 after being attacked by the killer whale whale Ã¢â¬Å"TilikumÃ¢â¬Â at Shamu Stadium in Orlando, Florida during a live performance. The whale dragged her underwater, vamper with her until her death.\r\nBrancheau was described as one of the take up in her profession. So what went wrong? Until behavior records are closely examined as to what led the whale to kill the trainer the apparent movement remains (www. time. com). In December 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Tatiana, a 4-year-old Siberian tiger, escaped from its enclosure at the San Francisco Zoo and killed one teen and injure two others on Christmas afternoonÃ¢â¬Â (Chua-Eoan). thither have been many articles about zoos keepers neglecting animals and displaying other acts of mistreat ment. The most recent article comes from a zoo director being charged with animal cruelty.\r\nMeghan Mogensen, 27 year old zoo director allegedly drowned a wounded wallaby in a bucket of water after low-down from an eye injury in his pen at the zoo (Daily News). In conclusion, although zoos have created natural-looking environments for animals, in my opinion, I believe it is cruel to house animals in captivity. The incidents mentioned above is inference to why animals need to be able to hunt and roam in the gaga which cannot be created by a zoo. thither is no reason why unbiased lives are continually lost for the pursuit of research, education, or entrainment. So what is your opinion on zoos?\r\n'
Saturday, December 22, 2018
'Formal base: VARK schooling Style Baromie F. Koroma Grand foundationon University NRS-429V: Family Centered Health Promotion professor: JenniferWood 03/03/13 1. It is kn let that e genuinely individual(a) in a scholastic fit has a different counsel of comprehending or taking in in moldation, an exercise that is symbolized by their exclusive culture style. With one realizing their own attainment style forget non only convey which courses or subjects they be competent at, however will oerly enlighten them of the greatest active way of learnedness and perplexing for the beas of any subject.In 1987, Neil Fleming designed the VARK learnedness style perspicacity which is a questionnaire that has questions that which answered by a individual will lead to four win that gives up to five study strategies which ar: Visual, aural, construe/ make unnecessary, and Kinesthetic (Fleming,2011). The way in which these scores add up informs a person where they fall within the f ive areas of learnedness strategies which is crucial to the education of both individual.This cover will elaborate in wonderful fragment multimodal as the seed took the VARK assessment and realized she is a multimodal learner. It will overly compare and contrast like learning strategies with the VARK learning strategies and appraises any changes compulsory to remediate study habits. The cause use to bring forward that she learn best from hearing and typography of every bit of information, but subsequently taking the VARK assessment she realized that she is a multimodal with scores of visual 6 , aural/auditory 4 , reading/write 9 and Kinesthetic 8.This means that the germ requires two or more methods of learning to be an effective learner. Context start learners and the total sense admission learners are the two types of a multimodal learner. The context approach is used if an individual has 0ne, two or more solo penchants to learning and utilise those independent ly based on the pip (Learning Styles, 2013). An example of this will be the uthor is a visual and kinesthetic learner and she is learning hair br forethoughting from a friend, she would non just stand there face at the friend braiding psyche else hair, but she would actually practice by doing one or more braids. The total sense learner requires receiving information or instructions in a divers(prenominal) ways in order to win over it all been received and understood correctly. For the whole sense learner, more time is needed to feel more poise in do decision.They call for a disposal of having VARK scores of more than 30 with discover last boundaries (Fleming, 2011) which is not the rootage style of multimodal learning. rase though the author learns in so many different was her learning selection is to read/write followed by give on experience to know how something very works, in a proficient look and the other strategies are used as bonus backing for my offend lear ning. As a multimodal with a preference of read/write and kinesthetic, this author likes to read books including novels and casebook and do some research prior to attending any class.She takes class notes and rewrites them over and over, reread them continually, rewrite them into outline form and list them in orderly manner. The author likewise learn better with a list or outlined instructions to follow during a lecture and likewise like to study by herself in a quiet surround which has been very wait onful during the past weeks with her online studies as she is not reliant on essentially auditory sense the lectures which would have permit her to be in a classroom for each and every lecture.The author also likes to make flashcards of nomenclature words to be known and a highlighter pen to underline key tops on a textbook or flashcards. She also learns through corporal comfort, drawing images, take test and making copies. An example of making copies will be printing out my c lass syllabus at the root of each class to avoid loging in to the classroom every time I vital information like grant for the is needed. Nevertheless(prenominal) this author has a preference of read/write and kinesthetic, she also benefits from Aural and Visual learning style.Aural learns the selective information wedded when it is used in an audio way. Talking, earshot and music are all methods that help an aural learner. They tend to learn better when they can hear instructions and articulation the answers. This author uses this learning style by conversing with people about her disciplines and assignment to acquire a wellspring understanding of it. A visual learner understands information well if they can see it. Their visualization abilities are tough and like to use charts, graphs and images.The author uses this learning style by cardinal and printing out material in different colors that allows desirable entropy to stand out above data that is not relevant to what she is learning. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s preferred learning strategies and the VARK strategies in read/write and kinesthetic are actually similar. Visual and aural modalities are less often use by the author. The author is more comfortable in pen/studying and practice context victimisation hands on (kinesthetic) technique. However, the author ineluctably to comprehend the big image to have a clear understanding of the topic in place.Changes that would improve study behaviors from aural modality include using a tape recorder to place notes on and listen to it. From the visual modality, the author will Use materials such as, PowerPoint, Maps or videos to aid in remembering of data given. In conclusion, by knowing a preferred learning style one can use their own strong point to better process data, and organize their learning and communication and also create a more effective learning environment and make learning more efficient.Reference: APA Fleming, N. (2011). VARK, a guide to learning s tyle. Retrieved from http://www. vark-learn. com/english/page. asp? p=multimodal N. A. (2013). Learning styles. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Learning_styles APA Citation N. A. (2013). Learning Styles, Strategies And Teaching Methods. Anti Essays. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from the humans Wide Web: http://www. antiessays. com/free-essays/34839. html\r\n'
Thursday, December 20, 2018
'Comic books fork up long held the fascination of modern and adult a kindred. Their amicable description on administration and cultural integration of societies along with their charismatic protagonists oppose against the forces of plague become a gateway into self-reflection Ã¢â¬ whether or non that self be a mortal or a authorities. In Alan MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s pictorial fiction The Watchmen such policy questions and the ambiguity of malign come to the forefront of the written report.\r\nThe Watchmen is a graphic saucy with takes discoer in the United States in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s but f titles some hi theme have transfigured in order to give the referee a more amoral society: Nixon is still pre billetnt, America won the Vietnam contend and the future looks like a bright place full of wild pansy thanks to Dr. ManhattanÃ¢â¬â¢s section introducing new engineering feats to even new fabrics (as seen with inkblot testÃ¢â¬â¢s mask that had once been a birdÃ¢â¬â¢s dr ess).\r\nAll of these elements combine to enlighten the reader and to cause them to question a static giving medication whose lines of non worse(predicate) and evil ar n unriv on the wholeedxistence in the face of progress as Moore stated in 1986, Ã¢â¬Å"[I] was consciously trying to do something that would denounce pot feel uneasy. Ã¢â¬Â (Stewart Synchronicity and Symmetry 1987). This paper leave al ane seek to develop an analysis of Alan MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s immaculate graphic refreshful including explanation from other sources that result support and deny the brilliance of this novel and its social commentary on American culture.\r\nAlan Moore pre displaces the reader with passages throughout his text which aid the reader in subplots of his yarn. near sections are dedicated to Nite honker while others are dedicated to the cataclysm of a pirate shipwrecked in Tales of the Black Freighter. The point of these small diversions from the main story is to give the reader a more oecumenical look into the morals of the story at hand.\r\nMoore is expectant his readers an idea round fighter aircraftes and their obligations to jurist paired with their individualized identities as Singh states, And we meet the protagonists, each with his or her protest set of personal demons Ã¢â¬ including the amoral Edward Blake/The Comedian (a contribution about whom I would have liked to learn more) whose ending sets the plot in motion and the two one time Nite Owls who meet on Saturdays to reminisce about glories past.\r\nThe altogether character in the book who actually has paranormal powers is Dr Manhattan/Jonathan Osterman, who developed extraordinary control over social occasion attending a laboratory accident. bit the perfect super chock derisory might have used Dr Manhattan to gravid effect in action snaps, his function here(predicate) is distinguishable: he serves as a im commenceial observer/commenter on human affairs.\r\n(Of course, he is excessively organism used as a heavy weapon by the US Ã¢â¬ a dubious move, since his really presence in the world encourages the possibility of mutually assured destruction. ) (Singh How Superheroes Fade 2006). Through MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution the reader discovers that the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s battle for justice is being underwritten by the judicature, especially with the enforcement of the Keene mold: An act which requires masked avengers to give the public their true personal identity. While some heroes do in fact harmonize to this new law (i.\r\ne. the Silk Spectre/Laurie Juspeczyk, and Ozymandias/Adrian Veidt) or not (Rorschach/Walter Kovacs), or simply retire (the second Nite Owl/Daniel Dreiberg) the fact that the political science is requiring for their heroes to divulge their identity and thereby become more of a target to their enemies is go bad of that running dialogue of government policies that serve no purpose, and definitely no good purpose that Moore was grim about writing into his story.\r\nThis idea about heroes begets the ideas about Greek and Roman culture (indeed many comic book heroes have their origins with ancient gods and goddesses) and with this connotation comes other Greek route: That of a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s flaw as Bradford Wright writes about MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of the graphic novel that The Watchmen is, Ã¢â¬Å"MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s obituary for the purpose of heroes in general and superheroes in particular. Ã¢â¬Â (Wright 272).\r\nThere is one hero in this story which supports for the bending of good into the realm of evil to play a propellent role in the book: Ozymandias/Adrian Veidt seeks to become like Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great conquered the kn let world- and he did this in order to unite the world and thereby eliminate opposition and evil. In AdrianÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, in order to become a great hero he must accomplish a coupled world in order to have global peace. Thus, he decides to fake a global affright in t he form of an alien attack toward the windup of the novel.\r\nThis attack succeeds in uniting the United States with Russia and other leaders (remember this was a time when the Cold contend was a serious issue, and even though Moore chose to change the face of the president for his graphic novel, the impending designate of the world is something he still kept in as a fact for his story). As near heroes have flaws, OzymandiasÃ¢â¬â¢ flaw may be considered to be his ego Ã¢â¬ for he wants to be greater than his own personal hero Alexander the Great. Tragic heroes incur their stories with aplomb of luck, or ego, or a crimson view of the world.\r\nWith literature or drama the tragedy of the unmistakable truth found in the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s own self-realization is typically the denouement. The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic heroes have blend ind in flavor under false pretences, thus they are blessed to suffer from their one flaw of ego as Iain Thomson writes,Ã¢â¬Âdeveloping its hero es precisely in order to deconstruct the very idea of the hero and so support us to reflect upon its significance from the many different angles of the shards left over(p) lying on the groundÃ¢â¬Â.\r\n(Thomson Deconstructing the hero 101). What is different in MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is that Ozymandias doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t succumb to his ego Ã¢â¬ at least not in the written pages of the novel (for RorschachÃ¢â¬â¢s novel does reach the attention of the Frontiersman theme and the reader is left to assume its pages impart be printed and the truth about the alien hoax will be publicized). Thomson goes on to state Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Â¦\r\ndevelops its heroes precisely in order to ask us if we would not in fact be better off without heroesÃ¢â¬Â¦[and the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s deconstruction of the idea of a hero] suggests that peradventure the time for heroes has passed [which further illustrates] this postmodern work from the deconstructions of the hero in the existentialism movement. Ã¢â¬Â (Thoms on 111). Thus, with the hero turned bad guy (for the cause of world peace) and not being punished by the ultimate superhero of the book, Dr. Manhattan, the reader is left wondering Where is justice?\r\nIt is this question which spurns on the plots and subplots of the novel. With the Keene Act masked avengers are forced to reveal their identity but The Comedian/Edward Blake does not have to do this as he is an agent for the government. His work for the government is similar to a mercenary soldier Ã¢â¬ he goes into American occupied territories and takes care of local uprisings. The part of the book dedicated to BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s story shows him in Vietnam with a flame thrower polishing soldiers. The conterminous scene is of Blake in a bar with a pregnant woman asking him to take of her promptly that the war is over.\r\nBlake laughs at her and she then grabs a bottle and breaks it then attacks him brutally slashing his face as Reynolds states of BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, Ã¢â¬Å"[h e is] ruthless, cynical, and nihilistic, and yet capable of deeper insights than the others into the role of the enclothe heroÃ¢â¬Â(Reynolds 106). The justice of the novel in this scene takes place when Blake takes out his pistol and shoots her in the stomach. The underlining commentary on this scene is further developed as the reader realizes through BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue with Dr.\r\nManhattan that Manhattan could have turned the gun into anything he wanted, but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, he simply allowed events to play through. So, the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ amoral personalities and their ability to follow their government as soldiers and kill villagers then kill a pregnant woman, or even to allow a pregnant woman to be killed when one could have done something to prevent it, layer the story with what are the definitions of good and evil and these traits applications to men who phone call to be fighting for justice.\r\nDoes guilt make evil actions less amoral? This is a question which p lagues through MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s commentary on the government. The United States government sent Dr. Manhattan to annihilate small villages in order for them to descent to the U. S. all in under the guise of peace as Klock states, Ã¢â¬Å"[l]ike Alan MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s kenosis, [Veidt] must destroy, then reconstruct, in order to build Ã¢â¬Ëa unity which would survive him. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Â (Klock 75). Does a government feel guilt over the thousands that die on the oppositionÃ¢â¬â¢s side?\r\nAnd, if they do feel guilt, how does a feeling make recompense for the harm that is done? Indeed, MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s novel about ambiguous feelings gives all of the contradictions of the American government (Sabin 165). In the world of graphic novels, the cut and ironic interpretation of the hero fighting side by side with its government and government agencies such as cops, it would seem then that the government would become a hero in association with the protagonists of the story.\r\nIn MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s n ovel, the reader sees the development of the anti-hero in full closing with the character of The Comedian. The Comedian is a social commentary on how governments, different agencies and countries are a burlesque Ã¢â¬ they promise to help the people but when the government sends Blake and Dreiberg to control the rioting in the street all it takes it one person from the advertize to throw a beer bottle at the Archimedes (Nite OwlÃ¢â¬â¢s prompt device) for Blake to go into the crowd shooting his gun at the people heÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed to be protecting.\r\nAll throughout the novel Moore has Dave Gibbons illustrate the phrasal idiom Ã¢â¬Å"Who Watches The WatchmenÃ¢â¬Â written in graffiti all over the city. At this pivotal scene in the novel, when the crowd disperses one lone soul is spray characterisation this phrase on the side of a twist when Blake comes up to them. This is main theme of the graphic novel Ã¢â¬ who controls the hero when the hero becomes evil? This question comes to a climax with OzymandiasÃ¢â¬â¢ character along with (to an extent) BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s character.\r\n'
Wednesday, December 19, 2018
'Sir William Haley once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Education would be so very oft more effective if its invention were to ensure that by the time they leave inform every boy and girl should know how much they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know, and be imbued with a long intrust to know itÃ¢â¬Â. If bookmans were guaranteed to leave school day with wise(p) of what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know and the desire to compensate learning, the method of learning leave behind be correct. directlyÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming system does not relieve oneself students the probability to enjoy what they be learning.\r\nThe banking method, where students ar hollow vessels which educators moldiness deposit knowledge into, deprives them of creativity and the desire to learn. No child is given the chance to smooth expose and be unique. Students today be simply creation placed on a conveyer belt, sorted, and so denominate according to their so c all in alled intelligence. We need an pedagogy system that provides a long-winde der learning method, a method where you localize on what is macrocosmness intimate instead of zipping finished it, and the freedom to ease up mis scrams as this will electrify and stimulate students to fulfill their potential.\r\nWe must recognize students as individuals and keep in reason their diverse plump forgrounds. In Ã¢â¬Å"Lives on the Boundary,Ã¢â¬Â Rose states, Ã¢â¬Å"The give the sackyon has intended to push to the margins much of the literature of our demesne: from Ameri provide Indian songs and chants to immigrant fiction to working-class narrativesÃ¢â¬Â (100). The messages that ar received from the text are crucial. The students need to be able to relate to what they have before them. unrivalled of the problems with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s procreation system is we are given material to read, memorize, and expected to repeat it back at the snap of a finger.\r\nBut without the strength to relate and connect with the material, the learning doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take pla ce. Everything that is read or beingness said is dependable going through one ear and out the other. By adding relatable texts, you add life to learning. In Ã¢â¬Å" encyclopaedism in the Key of emotional state,Ã¢â¬Â Jon Spayde states, Ã¢â¬Å"people cannot learn what they do not loveÃ¢â¬Â (69). When students are reading or learning about a subject they love, they are inspired and motivated to learn more. This alone can benefit the learning process for students. It becomes much easier to labor concepts well-educated in class.\r\nTodayÃ¢â¬â¢s education system does not allow all students to exposit in their own way. It is fast paced with limited shoes for creativeness. We are given large amounts of information at a time and attempt to move as quickly as possible through all that we can. thither is never Ã¢â¬Å"timeÃ¢â¬Â to stay seven-day on a topic. The instructors try their hardest to keep the pace, hardly this way of teaching does not benefit each student. In Ã¢â¬Å "Learning in the Key of LifeÃ¢â¬Â, Jon Spayde states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Â¦we are focusing far too much of our brawn and resources on fast knowledge, ignoring all the vastness and meaning slow knowledge adds to our livesÃ¢â¬Â (68).\r\nWhen the focus is on just acquire through the material, we are skipping oer the value and richness of slow knowledge. instead of zipping through a lesson beca white plague it needs to be done by a certain day to move onto the next, the focus needs to be on what is being learned than making a time requirement. Spayde also states, Ã¢â¬Å"You can figure out what you can do lovely quickly, but the ethical understanding of what you ought to do comes behindÃ¢â¬Â. We need to adopt the slow learning method, without it we are missing out on more than we think.\r\nThere is so much more to learning than getting through the material, the purpose of it is to benefit and gain from it. With slow knowledge we will achieve this. One of the nearly substantial cha nges that needs to be done is the check on mistakes. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"How to Make Mistakes,Ã¢â¬Â Dennett states, Ã¢â¬Å"Mistakes are not just golden opportunities for learning; they are, in an important sense, the only opportunity for learning something truly currentÃ¢â¬Â. When fear is being put into a student to never make a mistake, their education is stunted.\r\nThey drift off the faculty to explore and take the chance of being defile because they are repeatedly punished for being incorrect. When a mistake is made, students will learn where they went wrong and will accordingly grow from it. The key to pass on is making mistakes. The reason we are in school is to learn, but with this opportunity taken away from students their ability to learn is ripped from their grasp. Daniel C. Dennett also states, Ã¢â¬Å"You should seek out opportunities to make grand mistakes, just so you can then recover from themÃ¢â¬Â.\r\nInstead of using all of their energy to attempt to be perfect and run from being inaccurate, every student should odour for every opportunity to be wrong. Without errors, the students can not accomplish much. If you look at TodaysÃ¢â¬â¢ education system is in desperate need of change. No student is given the opportunity to show what they are fully capable of. Instead they are told what they can do. They are simply labeled and placed where they Ã¢â¬Å"should beÃ¢â¬Â. But when students begin to take their mistakes and soak in the richness of slow knowledge, they will begin to truly learn.\r\nMaria Montessori once said, Ã¢â¬Å"If education is always to be conceived along the same antiquated lines of a mere transmission of knowledge, there is diminutive to be hoped from it in the bettering of manÃ¢â¬â¢s future. For what is the use of transmitting knowledge if the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s add development lags behind? Ã¢â¬Â. If many students are having clog learning in the method we have created ages ago, why not change it? The t ime is now and there is no time to waste. We must refocus this noncurrent system to insure that the students will have a secure future and keep the standard of invigoration that we have today.\r\n'
Monday, December 17, 2018
'In Ã¢â¬Å"The Story Of Tom BrennanÃ¢â¬Â written by J. C Burke in a fabrication almost destruction, evil and shame through the allegory in that respect are allot of up and downs subsequently the drive the family is not the same(p) and tom knows that it ordain never be the same the tommyrot uses deadly power to add some problems to the story to lay aside it going the dart gives a couple of problems to anyone not just the family the livelong community is effected guilt tom and ky brood twain feel inculpative like they were the exercise for the crash shame the family lie in shame they feel like there family is bad and the community donÃ¢â¬â¢t armed service that is why they mover because the whole family is looked down upon by the town of Mumbili.\r\nThe family is affected by destruction in every way the family has compoundd later on the sluicet it has cause the whole community to change five-spot who was in the crash and her family are affected As intimately after caudal fin became paraplegic her mum has to change the way she raises her son and fins dreams are crushed after one night so much has happened to the families and friends of the victims in the crash.\r\nTomÃ¢â¬â¢s life has changed him and his mum grows supercharge away slowly not talking to apiece other. Kylies life has changed to she has lost all her friends because they had to move schools. And fin has nothing left and her mother has trouble looking for after her it is hard on every one.\r\nWhen the crash happens tom feels like he is the one who has cause the crash he feels vile in every way he feels like he could control halt what happened and kylie feels the same way she has the same feeling as tom and they are in the same place both feeling fineable of what happened that night both hiding it and keeping it bottled up inside them that is why they always fight it is because they both feel like they could allow done something about it stopped the whole incident fr om happening fin sought of has the same feeling that if she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fascinate in the car that night nothing would have happened and it would all be the same again notwithstanding she knows she canÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything about it. Daniel is in addition guilty and knows what he did was wrong he feels guilty because he was the one that was driving the car. Daniel couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even look at Nicole and LukeÃ¢â¬â¢s parents because he knew he took something away from them and he feels guilty about it.\r\nThe whole family will live in shame for the respire of their life seeing that it was their son that cause the crash they will be in shame because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop him they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop him from drinking Daniel curiously affected he will never impart over the fact they he killed two pack and will always know that there is a family missing something that they love and they will never break down that back just cause one someone did something they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have but was it really Daniels error he was not the one that made them accomplish in that car and maybe they should have stopped him from driving that night. The whole story is made up by one of these points and they play a bear-sized part in the story is none of these3 things happened the story would not have much in it.\r\n'
Sunday, December 16, 2018
'Ethiopian Culture The race of Ethiopia be very diverse crowd of peck that speak several diametric languages. Among them are a form of Semitic, Cushitic, or AmharicÃ¢â¬which is the official language. position is the most widely spoken foreign language. Ethiopia has legion(predicate) ethnic groups: Oromo, Amhara, Tigreans and 77 other ethnic groups. umpteen of these groups have their own language as well. The both major religious groups in the country are Christians and Muslims a huge with traditional Afri batch Religions.Ethiopians are very respectful people and go away rise come out of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s seat or pull up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s bed for an aged(a) friend or family member. Being of modest air and courteous are very important loving values in Ethiopia. When meeting new people, Ethiopians often are formal and reserved. Forming relationships takes time and is a mental process in and of itself. Some issues that need to be intercommunicate are the treatment of women. Thi s is due to women not creation treated fairly, and even sometimes sadly. Most women acceptÃ¢â¬â¢t know their rights.The Ethiopian constitution provides for equation , exclusively it is rarely followed because there are no effective mechanisms of enforcement for these protections (Ethiopia sparing Studies, 2000). Also, due to the high form of ethnic groups, many people live in states that are segregated by ethnic group and political affiliation. This may cause issues when people of different cultures work together. Reports show that there is a long history of tension between tribal groups in the region. One such(prenominal) example is between the Nuer and Anuak.Other issues that will factor in while doing moving in in Ethiopia are: extreme poverty; poor infrastructure, such as transportation; communications and other public-service corporation services; restrictions on foreign exchange and poor banking system. Despite this, EthiopiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth has surged, aver aging 6-7% from 1993-1998 (Ethiopia Economic Studies, 2000). Overall, Ethiopia is a country ripe with opportunity that throne provide a mutual benefit to investors and the local anesthetic population. Labor is inexpensive nd therefore, our company green goddess afford to hire more people and help oneself our fellow employees out of poverty and still turn of events a profit. There are many happen involvedÃ¢â¬considering the ethnic and political tensionÃ¢â¬but with any potential investment, there are constantly risks. With knowledge and a great understanding of Ethiopian culture, a good business plan can help smooth out the rough edges of doing business in a foreign country. References: Travel Information. (2009). Ethiopia sphere Review, 92-103. Cultural and demographic risks in Ethiopia. (2000). Ethiopia Economic Studies, 84.\r\n'
Saturday, December 15, 2018
'Of on the whole the cinemas that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen, only Ã¢â¬Å"A brighter summer mean solar dayÃ¢â¬Â was the longest hours depiction of them all told, a very cock-a-hoop project for the Chinese-language pick out. This movie was genius uped by a minute director, Edward Yang who do it all possible to direct 100 affectors to portray different roles. Ã¢â¬Å"A Brighter Summer mean solar dayÃ¢â¬Å"was true(a)ly based on a true incident which happened during 1960. The story was in addition a mixture of YangÃ¢â¬â¢s youth which jackpot be seen in the film though on that point is a little variation from the original. In June 15, 1961, a Taiwanese high school male killed his girlfriend in Gulling Street without any reasons.Ã¢â¬Å"A Brighter Summer DayÃ¢â¬Â was a personal vision which recalls both an actual street execute that shook the nation and Yangs deliver childhood at the same time. The story doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mainly focused on the gangsterÃ¢â¬â¢s street rival i n Taiwan during 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s but itÃ¢â¬â¢s story goes behind a young man who was experiencing a major convulsion in his own dry land in which he complimentss to all overcome. This movie serves as an exploration of the novel which depicts the heathenish identity of the Taiwanese. This film revolves around the biography of Sir, who was a high school student by then.The set out was filled with different calibres which seem equally worrisome. His wrap aside is filled with plenty of variables, but each characterÃ¢â¬â¢s plight seems equally worrisome. His father was whiz of the Chinese mainlanders who went all the way to Taipei during the foment of civil uprisings in 1949. Since the film was set over the course in 1961, it gave a printed introduction which explains that secern is now in uncertainty where gangs thrive on the streets so they should be careful about their children and victuals them safe and under control at all times.The levels of Yang jumps back and fort h with different subplots which made it touchy to track, particularly the shots that was taken from medium to long shots. disposed that, the story telling skills of Yang made it possible to greet some cues for each sequence which lets the earshot atomic number 82 the story. The most memorable scenes that revolve around the gangsterÃ¢â¬â¢s school-age girlfriend have been smitten with him. They crown up next door, while they cut classes, and reap easily attracted with the looks of the girl.Upon forming an endearing bond, SiÃ¢â¬â¢rs friends warned him about creation close to the girl and should not let her sound the cause of any bad blood. This part is very thrilling, and mysterious enough to watch since you documentaryly want to know what the story behind the murder is as if you are rightfully seeing how it happened. Yang sensed that when the subdued historical moment happens, driving and being determined become one. I think that because of this feeling, it made a na rrative filmmaking that creates a new genre of red-brick experience.Literary, this film had hypnotically built a single act of violence when it reaches and end of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s support which is inevitable and shocking at the same time. Ã¢â¬Å"A Brighter Summer DayÃ¢â¬Â emerged as one of the finest film made in Taiwan. Even though the cast were all non-actors, the film was still beautifully made- shots were good, houses especially the interior were great, even the schools and the dance clubs brought a real effect that happened in the countryside during summertime. The film also created a good effect by inserting violence and placidness alternately.The film is a rhythmic and poetic evocation of a particular era. Its ironic title (in that there is no Ã¢â¬Å"brighter summer dayÃ¢â¬Â for these characters) is taken from an demigod song that one of the kids sings at a cabaret. It is a truly exemplary modern masterpiece that got no distribution in the West but deserves to be hunted out at all cost by those who love and cherish the film art. You sack up also see other characters with singing careers that has been the fount of frustration and source of income of the gangsters.The song which was entitled Ã¢â¬Å" be You Lonesome TonightÃ¢â¬Â was the source of the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s title a song by paneling song which was sung by some nightclub kids. This song was one of the artifacts that appear in the movie though it did not originate from Taiwan. The song captures the audition through its melodic sound and its giving much(prenominal) goose bumps effect when you hear it while it plays as a particular scene was shown. There were also several(prenominal) important props in the film particularly the samurai sword, radio a flashlight and a tape recorder as wellspring.Older characters appear to be strictly adhering to TaiwaneseÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition or to something else like Christianity. The older characters, when they appear, either stubbornly stick about to Taiw anese traditions or have grabbed onto something else, such as Christianity while other older Taiwanese seemed to be powerless and weak. Children somehow understand this but perhaps cannot dig dipper to comprehend it and despite the murder that was inspired by a true to life incident, this film sees a light of hope.SÃ¢â¬â¢irÃ¢â¬â¢s father here was a civil handmaid with a high-ranking job and the accomplishments of his daughter. He a great deal attends the best government-sponsored college and was very proud. If his son disappoints him, he butts his head against bureaucracy, hoping that he would get personal favors the system which he believes to have fair and firm regulations. Yang simplifies things by tossing a metaphor into the stew which made it so misidentify in general when he narrates about the feat of the government against the people.The backbone of the narrative structure was make by SÃ¢â¬â¢irÃ¢â¬â¢s faulting morality when the tragedy befalls him seems to be h eartbreaking which made the entire nation moved by it. The word form has been weighed down on him and at that time, his family seems to be epizootic in the country. According to my research, the film besidesk over several years to finish because its preparation needed to be meticulous on its construction as well as the feelings that community might have. Because the length is nigh four hours, it definitely shows a remarkable film which gave an epic quality of the film.Since the there are to a greater extent than hundred speaking parts in the film, you should really focus in watching so that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll storage area on track of what was going on with the story, which is a good strategy on capturing the audience attention. Without flavor into the contradictions that it may bring in a governmental discourse, Yang personalized the politics and its complexities. The style of the film creates a paradox. He used I little fleck of close-ups, which keeps it far away from his subjec ts but not so far in order for the viewers to test them objectively and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬â¢ lose the grasp on their concern.The main accomplishment of Yang focused on the narrative that he made, as well as the semipolitical and emotional chaos. Familiarity arose from the running time that goes on with the lucid political attitudes which was evident in the script assures that audience concern were given focus where Yang wants it. This happens without using too much cinematic language which in wind prompts the viewer to barely identify the protagonists. Yang was never affright throughout the film although he made as a very expansive scope of a messy autobiographical of such territory.Attached with the film is a nostalgia but not to the point of intelligence. Yang created a manifesto which obviously shows conflicting attitudes about the recital of his country. We can see in the film that it was seemingly eternal to examine the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s lamentation which a storyteller like Yang has done to probe the history of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s developing country and its progress. For me, Ã¢â¬Å"A Brighter Summer DayÃ¢â¬Â sure stands as a monumental achievement, and could probably be the greatest film among all modern Taiwanese cinema.\r\n'
Friday, December 14, 2018
'* Since the images of moving pictures move in clock epoch, while is the most important element of the flick. In the cinema it is subject to contr achievement, expansion, breaks or leaps through the role of the director.\r\nThe three aspects of the snip\r\n1. Physical time is the time taken by an exploit as it is macrocosm filmed and as it is being projected on the screen. A film may actually shew what is happening in literal life. * Physical time in the cinema faeces be malformed through opposed front, accelerated motion, reverse motion, and halt motion.\r\n* Slow motion happens when the television camera takes pictures faster than the projector keep show them on the screen. * Accelerated motion occurs when the camera takes pictures slower than the projector can run them on the screen. * halt motion conveys an undoing of time\r\n* Stopped motion is not often used. Instead of stopping the action of an otherwise moving sequence, still photographs are used.\r\n2. psyc hological time is our emotional impression of the duration of the action that we experience as we watch film. In real life our mental state affects the way time passes for use. Time seems to move fast when we are happy. Boredom, idleness, or tragedy makes time lag. * In the cinema, time also go quickly and induces in us a feeling of exhilaration and excitement, while a slow pace can induce a grief mood or grief and slow round time.\r\n3. Dramatic time refers to the time taken up by the events which are depicted in the film. the cinema may use a story-line that covers a oneness day in the life of a guinea pig or the whole history of a civilization. * A story that embraces a long period of time may utilize twinklingbacks, include a blight or an epilogue, or exclude that inessential since it can be controlled from the shot. * A film that depicts a sketch period of time may be lengthy through repetition of different aspects on the events or the inclusion of scenes which to us m ay seem to flash across the screen when in truth it covers a few minutes.\r\nRead more: Analysis on Philippine Cinema\r\n'
Thursday, December 13, 2018
'| | |Media | |[pic] | | | |Media is the medium of airing randomness, breeding and diversion to the masses. It is an easier and efficient pennyer of| |communication which plays a key role in the any belongings either exploitation of an economy.\r\nIn an age where noesis and facts argon the tools| |for scotch, political and cultural ex replace, presence of the unassailable and constructive media in a rude is push throughstanding for | |catering to the diverse postulate of individuals, society as a whole, sm only and astronomical business and business houses, sundry(a) | |research organizations, back comprise sectors as considerably as the humankind sectors. Media is a conscience-keeper of the state of matter and has umteen | |tasks to perform in our twenty- four-spot hour period-to-day lives.\r\nIt helps the establishment to get by dint of assorted socio scotch and political goals; rail | |urban and rural masses; ins savings bank a whiz of responsibi lity among the con agate line; as puff up as domiciliate justice to the needy. It largely | |consists of print media wish soundly intelligence programpapers, magazines, journals and new(prenominal) generalations, and so forthtera as hygienic as electronic media like | | intercommunicate set, tv set, internet, and so forth\r\nWith the changing scenario of the domain, it has acquired the stipulation of an industry. | |In India, the media and entertainment industry is to a lower place(a)going remarkable change and is star of the fastest gro cowcatcher sectors. The | |main factors trusty for this ar rising per capita/ interior(a) income; high economic growth and strong macro-economic | |fundamentals; and democratic lay come forward up, good g eitherplacenance as comfortably as law and rule position in the province.\r\nSpecific solelyy, striking| |growth of the television industry, new formats for plastic film business and statistical dispersion, privatisat ion and growth of radio receiver, | |gradu altogethery liberalising attitude of G everyplacenment towards the sector, easier recover to and for intercontinental companies as well as | | climax of digital communication and its technological innovations atomic offspring 18 the al intimately separate(prenominal) attributes of the growth of the sector.\r\nThe | |media industry plays an importeeant role in creating bulks ken more or less subject bea policies and platforms by providing | | learning and reproduction, besides creating wellnessy business environment in the farming. Thus, it helps people to be agile | | placeners in the nation-building endeavour. | |TheÃÂ Ministry of reading and airÃÂ is the nodal authority in India for formulation and agreement of the rules, | |regulations and laws relating to media industry.\r\nIt is conglomerate in catering to the entertainment and dexterous needs of | | confused age groups and focusing direction of the mass es on issues of field integrity, environmental protection, wellness c argon | |and family welf atomic fare 18, eradication of illiteracy as well as issues relating to women, chel atomic offspring 18n and weaker sections of the society. | |It plays a significant part in helping the people to have gateway to unembellished flow of culture. It is excessively prudent for | |inter case co-operation in the celestial sphere of mass media, films and pass around medium and interacts with its foreign counterparts on | |behalf of Government of India.\r\nThe main functions of the Ministry atomic number 18 to:- | |Provide word program service by dint of all told India radio ( transfer) and Doordarshan (DD) to the people | |Develop the existenceise and television mesh leaveology as well as promote import and exportation of filmsÃÂ | |Educate and motivate the people for great participative involvement in the diverse recrudescemental activities and programmes of | |the Go vernmentÃÂ | | negotiate with disk operating system Governments and their organisations in the field of breeding and promotionÃÂ | |Organise film festivals and cultural exchanges in the earthÃÂ | |Administer the tug and Registration of Books chip, 1867 in think of of parole programworthiness showpapersÃÂ | |Disseminate reading active India at heart and after-school(prenominal) the rural argona by dint of publications on matters of field of study im call forthivenessÃÂ | |Use interpersonal communication and traditional phratry art forms for information/ forwarding campaigns on public involution issues | |Serve as a incessant link amongst the Government and the force per unit area, by performing as a clearing house of appointed information and | |authentic data pertaining to the Union GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s plans and programmes. | |The Ministry is divided into the following wings, namely:- | | discipline WingÃÂ Ã¢â¬ deals with the policy matters, t he print media as well as the shove and publicity requirements of the | |Government. The media units in this wing re:-ÃÂ | | matter breeding dominance | | mental picture officeÃÂ | |Research, Reference and raising dividerÃÂ | |Publications element | | directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity | |Directorate of Field PublicityÃÂ | |Song and Drama DivisionÃÂ | |Registrar of word of honorpapers for IndiaÃÂ | | gouge Council of IndiaÃÂ | |Indian pioneer of dope communicatingÃÂ | | publicize WingÃÂ Ã¢â¬ handles matters relating to the electronic media. It formulates policies and frames rules and regulations | |for this sector, which take on public service plan, operation of bank line television, hole-and-corner(a) television beam, | |F. M. send, artificial air radio, community radio, DTH serve, and so on\r\nThe organizations chthonic this wing ack right offledge:- | |Electronic Media observe centre of at ten-spottion | |The Prasar Bhara ti ( beam Corporation of India) Ã¢â¬ has been set up with the mandate to drum and entertain people and | |to ensure balanced development of publiciseing on radio and television through agencies like:- (i) whole India Radio, and (ii) | |Doordarshan. | |Broadcast Engineering Consultants (India) expressage (BECIL) | | photo computer graphic films WingÃÂ Ã¢â¬ handles matters relating to the film sector. Through its respective(a) units, it is involved in the production and | |distribution of documentary films infallible for internal and external publicity, development and promotional activities relating | |to film industries including training, promotion of good cinema, organization of film festivals, import and export regulations, | |etc.\r\nThis wing has the following media units: | |Films Division | |Central Board of Film CertificationÃÂ | |theme Film Archive of IndiaÃÂ | | subject argona Film tuition CorporationÃÂ | |Film and Television bestow of IndiaÃÂ | |Satyajit electron beam Film and Television InstituteÃÂ | |Directorate of Film FestivalsÃÂ | |ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Film Society | |Integrated finance WingÃÂ Ã¢â¬ performs important functions of maintaining and monitor the Accounts of the Ministry, through its | | hooked office of Ã¢â¬ËChief Controller of Accounts. | |The media industry has importantly bene run intoed from liberal investment regime in the sylvan. contrasted direct investment (FDI) | |has been permitted in its unhomogeneous segments.\r\nFDI upto nose candy per cent has at at one time been allowed for print media covering non- news | |publications and FDI (with FII) upto 26 per cent has been allowed for print and electronic media covering news and contemporary | | personal matters. However, the news sector has excessively been undecided up for FIIs, NRIs and PIOs. The FDI (including FII) in FM radio | | sending sector has been allowed at 20 per cent. While, FDI and FII upto 49 per cent have been permitted for cabl e ne twork; | |direct to interior(a) (DTH) Ã¢â¬ (within this limit, FDI component non to choke 20 per cent); climb up hardware facilities much(prenominal)(prenominal) as | |up-linking, hub (teleports); etc. | |At present, at that place are 110 one trillion million million TV households in India, out of which 70 million are cable and send mansions and rest 40 | |million are served by the public computer programmeer, that is, Doordarshan.\r\nSimilarly, there are 132 million radio sets in the country. | |Further, over the categorys, the number of private send TV conduct have gr have very fast from 1 TV contrast in two hundred0 to 273 TV | | channel till 31. 12. 2007. The news and current affairs TV conduct constitute 58 per cent and non-news and current affairs TV | |impart constitute 42 per cent of fundamental permitted 273 TV impart. The former transmit have gr bear from 1 in 2000 to 158 till | |31. 12. 2007, while latter rose from 0 to 115. | |The Ministry has b een devising several policy announcements as well as framing guidelines in order to create conducive environment| |for healthy development of various mass media in the country.\r\nSome of these are:- | |The formulation of Ã¢â¬Ë constitution Guidelines for Downlinking of Television have a bun in the ovens which implies downlinking all satellite television| | take down cogitate / accredited / hereditary and re-transmitted in India for public viewing. low it, no person/entity s mansion | |downlink a channel which has non been registered by the Ministry. Henceforth, all persons/ entities providing Television | | political program air divine services (TV tunes) up conjugated from some other countries to viewers in India as well as any entity desirous | |of providing such a Television Satellite Broadcasting serve up (TV Channel), receivable in India for public viewership, shall be | | infallible to obtain permit from Ministry, in accordance with the equipment casualty and c onditions prescribed.\r\nThe policy guidelines | |enumerates certain eligibility criterias for applier union, which are as follows:- | |The entity ( applier troupe) applying for permission of downlinking a channel, uplinked from abroad, must be a follow | |registered in India under the Companies present, 1956, regardless(prenominal)(prenominal) of its loveliness structure, foreign ownership or jazzment | | concur; | |The applicant company must have a commercial presence in India with its whizz place of business in India;. |It must either own the channel it wants to downlink for public viewing, or must enjoy, for the g controlge of India, max | |marketing/ distribution rights for the same, inclusive of the rights to the publicize and subscription revenues for the | |channel and must submit adequate conclusion at the meter of application; | |In berth the applicant company has exclusive marketing / distribution rights, it should in addition have the authority to conclude | |contracts on behalf of the channel for advertisements, subscription and programme essence;ÃÂ | |The applicant company should have a minimum net expense as prescribed, that is, networth ofÃÂ Rs. 1. 5 crore for downlinking of one | |channel andÃÂ Rs. crore for to each one additional channel;ÃÂ | |It must provide name and details of all the Directors of the company as well as key administrators such as CEO, chief financial officer and Head of | |Marketing, etc to get their national auspices clearance; | |It shall furnish technical details such as nomenclature, bring out, model, name and address of the manufacturers of the | |equipments/instruments to be used for downlinking and distribution, the shutdown schematic diagram of the downlinking and | |distribution system as well as withal demonstrate the facilities for supervise and storing record for 90 days. |Similarly, the notification of Ã¢â¬ËGuidelines for Uplinking from India, wherein the applicant, seeking per mission to set up an | |uplinking hub/ teleport or uplink a TV Channel or uplink adroitness by a tidings Agency, should be a company registered in India | |under the Companies doing, 1956. The company shall uplink only those TV channels which are specifically approved or permitted by | |the Ministry. For setting up of uplinking hub/ teleports in applicant company, the foreign truth holding including NRI/OCB/PIO | |should not exceed 49%. The networth requirement varies fromÃÂ Rs. 1 crore toÃÂ Rs. 3 crores for channel capacity one to ten. The | |applicant company, irrespective of its ownership, equity structure or management control, would be eligible to seek permission | |for uplinking a non- news program and current affairs TV channel.\r\nNetworth indispensable for single TV channel isÃÂ Rs. 1. 5 crore andÃÂ Rs. 1 | |crore for each additional channel. While, for uplinking a news and current affairs TV channel, networth required for single TV | |channel isÃÂ Rs. 3 crores an dÃÂ Rs. 2 crores for each additional TV channel. | |The Ministry has issued Ã¢â¬ËGuidelines for Obtaining License for Providing Direct-To- foundation (DTH) Broadcasting servicing in India, | |wherein DTH service refers to the distribution of multi-channel TV programmes in Ku Band by using a satellite system for | |providing TV signals direct to subscribers premises, without exhalation through an intermediary such as cable operator.\r\nThe | |eligibility criterias in the guidelines take on:- | |Applicant Company to be an Indian Company registered under Indian Companies Act, 1956. | | good foreign equity holding including FDI/NRI/OCB/FII in the applicant company not to exceed 49%. deep down the foreign equity, | |the FDI component not to exceed 20%. | |The applicant company must have Indian Management Control with studyity representatives on the control panel as well as the Chief | | executive director of the company being a resident Indian; etc. | |A Ã¢â¬ËPolicy on involu tion of FM Radio Broadcasting serve through Private Agencies (Phase-II) has too been announced to expand | |FM radio network through private agencies to hang on and complement the efforts of All India Radio.\r\nThis is to be done by | |operationalising radio place that provide programmes with topical anaesthetic sate and relevance, ameliorate the quality of fidelity in | | response and generation, encouraging participation by local talents and generating employment. in that location are 21 channels already in | |operation under Phase-I. Out of 337 channels offered for bid in Phase II, Letter of pitting (LOI) has been issued to 245 | |channels, of which all channels have signed the agreements. In all, 178 private FM channels are in operation till date in India | |including the 21 channels of Phase I. | |There is as well a Ã¢â¬ËPolicy for Import of Cinematograph Films and Other Films, wherein import of cinematograph stimulate films and | |other films (including film on v ideo tape, compendious video disc, laser video disc or digital video disc) has been allowed without | |a licence.\r\nThe importer of the film shall harmonize with the provisions of all applicable Indian laws administration the distribution | |and exhibition of films, including the requirement of obtaining a documentation of public exhibition prescribed under the | |Cinematograph Act 1952. Under it, import of any unauthorized/pirated films shall be prohibited. Import of foreign reprints of | |Indian films shall not be permitted without the prior permission in writing from the Ministry. | |Draft Broadcasting Services Regulation Bill, 2007′ has been announced to promote, despatch and develop in an orderly manner | |the carriage and content of broadcasting.\r\nFor the purpose, it aims to provide for the establishment of an independent authority | |to be k at presentn as the Broadcast Regulatory sanction of India as well as encou ferocity broadcasting services to be responsiv e for the | |educational, developmental, social, cultural and other needs and aspirations of people and include in their computer programing public | |service messaging and content; etc. | |As a result of all such incentives, the media industry in India has shown considerable growth over the years, with almost | |double-digit growth. It is projected to grow from an estimated size ofÃÂ Rs. 437 one thousand thousand toÃÂ Rs. 1 trillion by 2011. It provides | |ample opportunities for investors the world over, brings in more capital inflow into the country and presents significant | |avenues for some(prenominal) direct and indirect employment.\r\nIt helps in shaping peoples views and outlooks rough various national and | | internationalistic issues and thus helps in formulation of schemes, policies and programmes. It is a regent(postnominal) medium for providing | |entertainment, disseminating information, nurturing and cultivating diverse mental pictures, educating and empoweri ng the people of | |India to be intercommunicate citizens so as to effectively participate in the democratic process; as well as pre avail, promoting and | |projecting the diversity of Indian culture and talent of the country. | muss conversation IN a country like ours, mass communication plays a bouncy role in creating peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness about policies and programmes of development. It helps in motivating them to be active partners in the nation-building endeavour.\r\nA skillful synthesis between traditional and folk forms of communication on the one hand and modern audio-visual media including Satellite conference on the other, is being attempted. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting being the nodal organisation in this field has a comprehensive set-up of its mass media units with their regional and branch offices as well as mobile units. ELECTRONIC MEDIA AKASHVANI Broadcasting started in India in 1927 with two privately-owned transmitters at Bombay and Calcutt a. The Government took over the transmitters in 1930 and started operating them under the name of Indian Broadcasting Service. It was changed to All India Radio ( publicise) in 1936 and later it as well as came to e cognise as Akashvani from 1957. channelise is serving as an effective medium to inform and educate people besides providing healthy entertainment. NETWORK At the time of Independence there were half a dozen radio station. All India Radio presently has 197 radio place including 184 full-fledged stations, ten relay centres, and three exclusive Vividh Bharati commercial centres. denude presently has 305 transmitters. These include cxlv medium-wave, 55 short-wave and 105 FM transmitters and provide radio reporting to a population of 97. 3 per cent spread over 90 per cent bailiwick of the country. MUSIC medicinal drug constitutes 40 per cent of the check programmes broadcast over advertise omprising classical, light, folk, film and medicinal drug in the regional verbiages. national syllabus of Music (Hindustani and Karnatic) are the prestigious programmes broadcast on all(prenominal) Saturday and Sunday. These programmes are broadcast live from the four thermionic vacuum tubes. tutelage in view the Centenary celebration of rarefied artists of medication, viz. , Pt. Onkar Nath, Musari Subramanya Iyer and Dr Doraiswami Aiyengar, spare programmes have been broadcast in the depicted object course of instruction of Music. Akashvani Sangeet Sammelan Ã¢â¬ an annual affair is another euphonyal treat to serious classical medication listeners and lovers. About 50 concerts of both Karnatic and Hindustani ere have at various places and the recordings were broadcast for over a calendar month. railway line Music oppositions is another tied(p) stimulate towards searching new talents amongst youngsters. The competitions are held in unlike categories like classical (Hindustani and Karnatic both) instrumental, light for boys and girls. Du ring 1998, medicine competitions were held at dissimilar stations of telephone line in which 111 candidates participated and octonaryer from Decatur won the prizes. VIVIDH BHARATI AND COMMERCIAL BROADCASTING assist Commercials were introduced on All India Radio from 1 November 1967 on Vividh Bharati. at one time all the Primary Channel Stations, 30 Vividh Bharati entres, all Local Radio Stations and four FM electron tube channels are taking Commercials. Commercials are also allowed over issue Channel, refreshing Delhi and the North-Eastern Service, Shillong. Vividh Bharati Service provides entertainment for more than 14 hours a day from 34 centres. The revenue acquire by radio during 1998-99 was Rs 92. 26 crore. Some innovative commercial broadcasting was introduced by striving during 1998-99. job took over all the slots on 4 metro FM channels with effect from 26 June 1998 which were earlier allotted to private parties. At present all the 4 metro FM channels are being ro ll by All India Radio through in-house programmes. AIR was able to market all the purchasable ommercial time during the broadcast of 1998 Parliamentary elections results for about 72 hours. AIR also did the marketing of institution Cup Cricket, 1999 through its own in-house establishment. Efforts are being made to get down extensive marketing of air time on all the channels of AIR. DRAMA More than 80 stations of AIR broadcast plays in various languages. Radio adaptations of outstanding novels, short stories and stage plays are also broadcast. Besides original plays, a large number of stations weakly broadcast family gaming with a view to eradicate social evils. The subject political programs of plays is broadcast on every fourth thorium of the month n Hindoo and its regional versions are broadcast by relevant stations simultaneously. special(a) model plays of 30 minutes succession are produced at the Central Drama Unit at Delhi, which are broadcast by 33 stations of AIR i n a chain of six months. All India Competition for Radio Playwrights is being unionized in 15 major(ip) languages. All the prize- harming entries are translated in Hindoo and then circulated to all stations for further exposition and production in various languages. newsworthiness SERVICES DIVISION The give-and-take Services Division (NSD) of All India Radio disseminates news and comments to listeners in India and abroad. The history of news broadcasting in India is more older than that of All India Radio. The prototypic ews bulletin went on the air from the Bombay station on 23 July 1927 under a private company, the Indian Broadcasting Company. The News Wing of All India Radio came into existence ten years later in frightful 1937. From 27 bulletins in 1939-40, AIR now puts out 314 bulletins routine withMass Communication a total eon of 39 hours and 29 minutes. Out of these, 88 bulletins are broadcast in the Home Services from Delhi with a duration of 12 hours and 05 minu tes, while 42 regional News Units originate 137 news bulletins occasional with a duration of 18 hours and 01 minute. In the outside Services, AIR broadcasts 65 bulletins for 8 hours and 59 minutes in 24 languages (Indian and foreign).\r\nThe News Services Division has been putting out news headlines bulletins on the FM Channel since 28 may 1995. These are now available round-the-clock. AIR News on phone was introduced on 25 February 1998. The service provides the latest news highlights in Hindoo and side of meat on phone on dialing the undertake numbers. AIR is now available on the Internet. AIR broadcasts special bulletins such as sports news, slow-speed bulletins and youth bulletins. two youth bulletins are broadcast from Delhi in side and Hindi. AIR, Calcutta also broadcasts two youth bulletins in Bengali. During the hajj period, a cardinal-minute Haj bulletin is aired from Delhi day-to-day for the benefit of the pilgrims. Comments from the abbreviateÃ¢â¬â¢ are broad cast every day. In addition, NSD puts out a number of news-based programmes and commentaries in position and Hindi. During Parliament Sessions, commentaries in Hindi and side check outing the dayÃ¢â¬â¢s proceedings in both Houses, are broadcast. Similarly, the RNUs put out reviews of the proceedings of their respective State Legislatures. The bulk of AIR news comes from its own correspondents spread all over the country. It has 90 regular correspondents in India and seven abroad at Colombo, Dhaka, Dubai, Pretoria, Kathmandu, capital of Singapore and Islamabad. isolated from this, AIR has 246 part-time correspondents based at important istrict headquarters. AIR subscribes to the news agencies Ã¢â¬ UNI, PTI and their corresponding Hindi services Ã¢â¬ Univarta and Bhasha, and ANI to supplement its news sources. Other sources of news are the monitored reports from Monitoring Units (English and Hindi) attached to the General News Room and the Central Monitoring Services, which mon itor the bulletins of major broadcasting organisations of the world. EXTERNAL SERVICES DIVISION The External Services Division (ESD) broadcasts programmes for about 70 hours a day in 25 languages (16 foreign languages and cabaret Indian languages) for listeners in varied parts of the globe. The broadcast project the Indian oint of view on World Affairs through daily commentary and pressing reviews and acquaint the overseas listeners with the developments in India along with information on the myriad facets of Indian life. The target areas of ESD bit mental strain almost all the continents and include areas of East, North-East and southeastward Asia, westside, North-West and East Africa, Australia, New Zealand, get together Kingdom, atomic number 63 and the Indian sub-continent. The services in Hindi, Tamil, Telugu and Gujarati are order to Indians overseas, while those in Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi and Sindhi are think oft for the listeners in the sub-continent and the borderin g countries. During the year, cod coverage was realizen to all conferences, seminars, ymposia and festivals of films and trade of National and InternationalMass Communication importance in the form of Radio reports and interviews besides, the visits of foreign dignitaries to India and of Indian dignitaries abroad. special(a) initiatives were taken to give wide publicity to IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s geo-political compulsion for a nuclear and Agni-II test in view of the security environment in her immediate neighbourhood. ESD transmitters, also carry the 9 P. M. National bulletin in English, primarily meant for Home Services. External Services Division continues to tot up recordings of music, speak word and other programmes to about coke countries and foreign roadcasting organisations, under the Programme Exchange scheme. induction of internet broadcasting by AIR has enabled its listeners in various parts of the world like USA, Canada, West and South Africa to avail of AIRÃ¢â¬â¢s servi ces on Internet. NATIONAL CHANNEL The National Channel was inaugurated on the 18 May 1988 and is located at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi. Presently, it works as a iniquity service covering over 76 per cent of the population of the country and provides a judicious intermix of information and entertainment. Having the whole of India as its zone, it draws the trounce available talent in the country. The programme complexion of the Channel has been designed to make it epresentative of the cultural mosaic and ethos of the nation as a whole. Programmes entitled Ek Kahani Ã¢â¬ reversetization of selected best short stories from regional languages and Basti Basti Ã¢â¬ Nagar Nagar to familiarise the people of other states with various tourist spots all over the country are being broadcast. Hourly news-bulletins, instead in Hindi and English, are broadcast from the National Channel throughout the night. Whenever the Parliament is in session, National Channel broadcasts reco rdings of the question hour for the benefit of the listeners. Sahargahi, a special early morning programme is broadcast from the National Channel in the holy month of Ramzan.\r\nCENTRAL MONITORING SERVICE The Central Monitoring Service (CMS) monitors news and news-based programmes of foreign radio and television networks. It also feeds the Newsrooms of AIR and Doordarshan with news flashes. During the year, the CMS on an total monitored about vitamin C broadcasts and 38 telecasts from 15 radio and three television networks every day in viii languages including one foreign language. The organisation brought out a report everyday containing all the veridical monitored on that day. Besides, the CMS brought out two hebdomadal reports, a weekly analytical report expectant an psychoanalysis of the important news of the week and a weekly special report on Kashmir ased on the anti-India propaganda of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s radio and television networks on the Kashmir issue. The CMS has tw o field unitsÃ¢â¬one at Jammu and the other in Calcutta. organisation AND PROGRAMME EXCHANGE SERVICE Transcription and Programme Exchange Service (T&PES) consists of Sound Archives, Transcription Unit, Programme Exchange Unit, Foreign ProgrammeMass Communication Unit and Satellite Transmission Unit. The AIR archives store about 47,000 tapes of various formats which inlcude vocal and instrumental music of both Hindustani and Karnatic styles; light, folk, tribal and patriotic music of different regions and also orchestral compositions. Besides, the Archives has he sound recordings of distinguished personalities like Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindra Nath Tagore, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr B. R. Ambedkar, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali and many others. by from this, the speeches delivered by all the hot seats and the Prime Ministers are also preserved in the Archives. Recordings from the Archives are now being tr ansferred to compact discs which will replace the tapes now being used. So far, 235 CDs of spoken word and music have been wide-awake. This year the Archives has helped prepare a CD/Cassette consisting of voice recordings of Rabindranath Tagore and a ocumentary on Rabindranath Tagore produced by Satyajit Ray. This along with a monograph on Tagore which has been jointly produced by AIR and Vishwa Bharati, has been released by the Prime Minister in Calcutta on 20 May 1999. Project on Data Entry updating tapes of PMs and Presidents has been consummate and work on Hindustani and Karnatic music is in progress. It has added to its collection 125 tapes which include, among others, the radio autobiography of Shiv Mangal Singh Ã¢â¬ËSumanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Milkha Singh. The Programme Exchange Unit (PEU) exchanges good quality programmes among the AIR stations as per their requirements in its library. Approximately 8,000 tapes containing the recordings of music and spoken ord programmes are pres erved, among them are the Ramcharit Manas Gaan and booty winning programmes of Akashvani Annual Awards and the language lessons in Bengali, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu. A bi-monthly bulletin Vinimaya is published from T&PES giving details of available foreign programmes, Karnatic and Hindustani music (vocal and instrumental) and other forms of musical programmes, viz. , orchestral compositions, stage songs, folk and tribal music, etc. , and spokenword programmes, i. e. , features, plays, talks, opera and interviews, etc. , for circulation among the AIR stations. It also gives daily information regarding ur satellite transmission to meet the requirements of the stations. Transcription unit procures from AIR stations and News Services Division, all the speeches delivered by the President and the Prime Minister in different parts of the country and abroad. The unit trustworthy 117 such speeches delivered from January to Novem ber 1998. Central Tape Bank (CTB) looks after the needs of AIR stations for exchanging good programmes among the stations. CTB has 76,000 number of tapes circulated among 194 AIR stations. The Foreign Programme Unit procures the best of the programme material from different countries for All India Radio. During 1998 the foreign nit of T&PES received 438 programmes from SAARC Secretariat, France,Mass Communication Germany, Bulgaria, World Radio, Beijing, Sweden, Australia, United Nations. These programmes are screened and circulated to stations in Audio magnetised tapes and through INSAT 2C and INSAT 2C 3. T&PES has a satellite transmission on RN Channels of INSAT-1D and RN Channels of INSAT-2A. A total of 500 programmes transmitted through these channels were recorded by different AIR stations for future use. FARM AND base of operations PROGRAMMES mature and Home units function at various stations of AIR. The average duration of farm and spot broadcasts is 60-100 minut es per day from each station.\r\nThe broadcasts also include programmes for rural women and rural children. Broadcast of mother and child care series in collaboration with UNICEF and State governments has been undertaken by many AIR stations. The main push has been on issues relating to rights of the child, gender bias and child abuse, etc. Environmental Protection programmes receive adequate tension in these broadcast to retain ecological balance. Ã¢â¬Å"Farm school on airÃ¢â¬Â as a method of communicating distant education on farming has been adopted by many AIR stations. Besides imparting technical and other information, the coerce of the broadcasts are : (i) dissemination of information relating to ways and heart for increasing roduction of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, fruits, etc. ; (ii) diversification of agriculture, social forestry, economy of environment and farm forestry; (iii) poverty alleviation schemes, health and sanitation, etc. ; (iv) adult education programmes and (v) role of panchayats in rural development. The programmes also lay emphasis on the various economic measures taken by the Government, aimed at rural development. FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES AIR Stations broadcast more than 10,000 programmes on Family Welfare every month in all the major languages/dialects of our country. Programmes on AIDS, TB, Dengue, sexually Transmitted Diseases, water borne diseases, alaria eradication programme, child choice and safe motherhood programme, sterilization, vasectomy, tubectomy, etc. , are broadcast under the title of family welfare programmes. Success stories are also broadcast regularly. SPORTS During 1998-99, AIR provided extensive coverage to the National and International Sporting events held in India and abroad. study international events covered were the World Cup hockey game tournament at Utrecht, Asian Games at Bangkok, solid ground Games at Kuala Lumpur, World Cup Cricket Tournament in the UK and the Wimbledon Tennis Championship in London. AIR also encourages traditional games like Kabaddi, Kho-Kho, etc. , hrough broadcast or running commentary in order to popularise them among the youth of the country and to foster sports talents in the domain of traditional sports and games. Mass Communication AKASHVANI yearbook AWARDS All India Radio presents Akashvani Annual Awards to outstanding broadcasts for every calendar year in different disciplines and subjects. Special prizes, Lassa Kaul Awards on National Integration and Ã¢â¬Ë corresponding of the YearÃ¢â¬â¢ for excellence in News reporting are also awarded. There is also an award for a special topic documentary. This yearÃ¢â¬â¢s subject is Ã¢â¬ËSenior CitizenÃ¢â¬â¢. An award at national level is given to the Best Choral singing Group (Senior nd Junior Groups) for a competition held for children at various regional centres. An award for Ã¢â¬Å" audience Research/Survey ReportsÃ¢â¬Â has also been introduced from 1995. AIR also awards the Best Commercial Broadcasting Service core and awards for Technical Excellence. DOORDARSHAN Doordarshan, the national televison service of India devoted to public service broadcasting is one of the largest sublunar networks in the world. The flagship of DoordarshanÃ¢â¬DD-1Ã¢â¬operates through a network of 984 terrestrial transmitters of change powers reaching over 87 per cent of the population. There are 57 additional transmitters giving terrestrial support to other channels. Doordarshan uses a large number of transponders on he Indian National Satellites (INSAT) and other satellites to network its terrestrial transmitters and also to extend coverage. The signals of DoordarshanÃ¢â¬â¢s International service could be received in most part of the globe. Doordarshan has established programme production facilities in 46 cities across the country. Doordarshan programmes are watched in India by 360 million viewers in their homes. Doordarshan earned around Rs 4 billion during the financial year 1998-99 through commercial advertisements. THE EARLY YEARS The stolon telecast originated from a makeshift studio in the Akashvani Bhavan, New Delhi on 15 September 1959. A transmitter of 500 W power arried the signals within a radius of 25 km from Delhi. The regular service with a News bulletin was started in 1965. Television went to a second city, Mumbai, only in 1972, and by 1975 Calcutta, Chennai, Srinagar, Amritsar and Lucknow also had television stations. SITE The branch experiment with satellite technology in India, known as the Satellite Instructional Television experiment (SITE), was conducted in 1975-76. This was, incidentally, the first attempt anywhere in the world of using the sophisticated technology of satellite broadcasting for social education. The year 1982 witnessed the introduction of a regular satellite link between Delhi nd other transmitters, the starting of national programme and the era of colour television in the country. The Asian Games he ld in Delhi that year acted as the major impetus for rescue out these changes within a short period. later on 1992, television facilities have been rapidly expanding and during certain periods the country got an additional transmitter every day. In theMass Communication decade 1981-90, the number of transmitters increased from 19 to 519. THREE-TIER SERVICE Doordarshan has a three-tier primary programme serviceÃ¢â¬national, regional and local. In the national programmes the focus is on the events and issues of reside to the whole nation. These programmes include news, current ffairs, science, cultural magazines, documentaries, serials, music, dance, drama and feature films. The regional programmes originating from the State capitals and relayed by all transmitters in the respective State telecast programmes of interest at the State level, in the language and barbarism of that particular region. The local programmes are area-specific and cover local issues featuring local people. learning PROGRAMMES On the National interlocking news bulletins are telecast in Hindi and English at regular intervals. All the major Kendras telecast news bulletins in the evenings in their respective languages where the regional events are covered in greater detail.\r\nSome Kendras telecast regional news in Urdu also. Doordarshan has a number of programmes on current affairs where topical issues are discussed in-depth, bringing out the various viewpoints. Information programmes also include telecast on agriculture, rural development, health, family welfare, consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, environment, etc. There are programmes specially targeted for women, children and youth. Doordarshan brings to its viewers all the major national and international sports and games through live telecast. There are other programmes on sports, including interviews with eminent sports persons, sports education, etc. Doordarshan also has an exclusive sports channel. EDUCATIONAL TV\r\nThe educational pro grammes are at different levels ranging from basic health education for the not-so-well-educated to the higher education programmes for university students. In 1961 IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s first school television service was commissioned at Delhi for the institutions run by the Delhi Municipal Corporation. ETV programmes for school children are telecast from a number of regional Kendras in different languages covering both formal and loose education. The software program for these programmes are produced by the Central Institute for statement Technology in Delhi and State Institutes of Education Technology of different Centres. To put quality education within the reach of students residing even n grim villages and towns, the University Grants Commission, has a countrywide classroom telecast on the national network. Besides this, syllabus-based programmes for the students of Indira Gandhi National Open University are also being telecast on the national network. ENTERTAINMENT The entertain ment programmes include music, dance, plays and serials. Mass Communication Feature films and programmes based on excerpts from feature films are also telecast on the national network and from the regional kendras. METRO CHANNEL In 1984 a second channel was added in Delhi to provide an ersatz viewing to the heterogeneous metropolitan population. Later, similar acilities were provided to viewers in Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. In 1993 these four terrestrial transmitters were linked through satellite to provide an exclusive entertainment channel for the urban audience. This service, known as DD-2 Metro Entertainment Channel, is now available terrestrially in 54 cities. In other parts of the country the programmes of this channel could be received through process antennas or through cable operators. The metro channel targets the younger viewers in urban areas. regional LANGUAGE CHANNELS To provide additional software in the major languages of the country, some of which are spoken by more than 50 million people, Doordarshan has 11 regional language satellite channels.\r\nThe programmes on these channels include the regional service, which is available terrestrially in the concerned state and additional programmes which could be received in the satellite mode. These programmes are carried on the INSAT satellite which has footprint over the entire country and the regional language programmes could be watched by people irrespective of their place of residence. INTERNATIONAL CHANNEL Doordarshan-India, the international channel, is in operation from 1995 and reaches about 50 countries in Asia, Africa and europium through PAS-1 and USA and Canada through PAS-4 and PAS-1 satellite. It is presently on the air for 19 hours each day. AUDIENCE look for\r\nThe Audience Research Unit of Doordarshan, manned by professional researchers, is involved in studies on the various aspects of broadcasting. It also operates a system of getting ratings on Doordarshan programmes each week. Audience Research is also monitoring the voluntary feedback from viewers and maintains Data Banks at the national and kendra level. VIEWERSHIP Over the years DoordarshanÃ¢â¬â¢s viewership has increased phenomenally and now an estimated 69 million homes have televisioin sets which mean that 362 million people can watch Doordarshan programmes in their homes. Community TV sets have been established under various schemes operated by Central and State governments.\r\nIn rural areas most of the privately-owned sets also act as community sets, attracting a number of viewers from nonTV homes and the total number who watch Doordarshan at least once in a week exceeds 500 million. In the last four years programmes of commercial channels operating from outside India are available for some sections of the population, but Doordarshan has retained more than 70 per cent of the totalMass Communication viewership in urban areas and more than 90 per cent of the viewership in the rural areas in most of the States. PRASAR BHARATI All India Radio and Doordarshan functioned as departments under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.\r\nThere were persistent demands that the electronic media should be barren from Government control and they should have autonomy in their functioning. The Parliament had passed an Act to give autonomy to the media in 1990 itself, but at that time the Act was not notified. In 1997 the Government decided to notify this Act and Prasar Bharati, the autonomous Broadcasting Corporation of India, came into existence on 23 November 1997. A Board consisting of a chairman, an executive atom and a number of part-time, full-time, ex-officio and elected members is to manage the affairs of Prasar Bharati. There is also to be a representative of the Government of India on the Board.\r\nPRESS AND patsy MEDIA REGISTRAR OF NEWSPAPERS FOR INDIA Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI), commonly known as charge up Registrar came into being on 1 July 1956. Besides, the statutory functions, the Registrar recommends import of printing machinery and affiliate materials for newspapers. The duties and functions of the tug Registrar are defined in the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 and rules made thereunder as amended from time to time. As on 31 December 1998, the total number of newspapers and weeklys was 43,828 as compared to 41,705 in 1997. There were 4,890 dailies, 331 tri/bi-weeklies,15,645 weeklies, 12,065 monthlies, 5,913 fortnightlies, ,127 quarterlies, 383 annuals and 1,474 publications with periodicities like bi-monthlies, half-yearlies, etc. Newspapers were published in as many as 100 languages and dialects during 1998. Apart from English and 18 principal languages enumerated in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution, newspapers were published in 81 other languages, mostly Indian languages or dialects and a a couple of(prenominal) foreign languages. The highest number of newspapers were published in the Hindi langu age. Daily newspapers were brought out in 18 principal languages and Kashmiri was the only principal language that did not have a daily newspaper. Newspapers were published from all States and Union Territories. Uttar\r\nPradesh with 7,895 newspapers retained the prestigious position of publication the largest number of newspapers in India. In the case of dailies also, Uttar Pradesh held the top position with 805 dailies. Bombay Samachar a Gujarati daily published from Mumbai is the oldest brisk newspaper. In 1998, the total circulation of Indian Press was 12,68,49,500 copies. The Anand bazar Patrika, Bengali daily from Calcutta with a circulation of 5,86,637 copies was the largest circulated single random variable newspaper. The Times of India, an English daily from Mumbai which had a circulation of 5,66,378 copies stood second. Hindustan Times, English Daily from Delhi with aMass Communication irculation of 5,55,911 copies occupied terce position. The Times of India having six editions in English with a circulation of 13,90,827 copies occupied first position among multi-edition dailies during 1998. The Malayala Manorama published with ogdoad editions in Malayalam with a total combined circulation of 11,23,745 copies stood second. Gujarat Samachar with five editions in Gujarati occupied third position with a total circulation of 8,59,015 copies. Among periodicals, Malayala Manorama, a Malayalam weekly published from Kottayam was the largest circulated periodical with 11,58,108 copies. Saras Salil, Hindi Fortnightly from Delhi with a circulation of 9,32,753 copies ccupied the second position. circuit board 11. 1 : NUMBER OF NEWSPAPERS IN 1998 (LANGUAGE AND PERIODICITY-WISE) Languages Dailies Tri/Bi- Weeklies Fort- Monthlies Quarterlies Bi-monthlies Annuals Total weeklies nightlies Halfyearlies English 353 29 835 635 2,606 1,172 734 153 6,517 Hindi 2,202 125 9,062 2,741 2,960 544 173 29 17,836 Assamese 14 3 73 38 57 12 10 1 208 Bengali 96 14 580 463 661 4 41 156 14 2,425 Gujarati 106 8 565 161 455 57 43 13 1,408 Kannada 290 6 337 217 542 43 17 3 1,455 Kashmiri 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Konkani 1 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 6 Malayalam 208 5 167 152 712 54 23 8 1,329 Manipuri 12 0 6 5 9 6 3 0 41 Marathi 302 20 870 161 451 100 39 103 2,046\r\nNepali 3 2 14 6 8 16 5 0 54 Oriya 68 2 132 81 260 85 23 4 655 Punjabi 106 15 332 83 231 31 18 1 817 Sanskrit 3 0 8 4 16 13 6 0 50 Sindhi 10 0 35 11 35 8 2 0 101 Tamil 344 43 391 220 717 27 20 7 1,769 Telugu 129 3 236 178 453 24 10 2 1,035 Urdu 509 20 1,290 356 496 56 15 3 2,745 Bilingual 65 19 534 311 1,082 327 135 31 2,504 Multilingual 15 4 92 60 197 64 31 11 474 Others 54 13 82 29 116 47 11 0 352 Total 4,890 331 15,645 5,913 12,065 3,127 1,474 383 43,828 PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU The Press Information pectus (PIB) is the nodal authority of the GovernmentMass Communication to disseminate information to the print and electronic media on government olicies, programmes, initiatives and achievements. Functioning as an po rt between the Government and the media, the PIB also provides feedback to the Government with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction as reflected in the media. With its eight Regional Offices and 32 Branch Offices and Information Centres, the PIB disseminates information through different modes of communications, such as press releases, press notes, feature articles, backgrounders, press briefings, interviews, press conferences and press tours, etc. The information material released in Hindi, Urdu and 13 other regional languages reaches to over 7,000 newspapers and media organisations.\r\nThe Bureau at headquarters has a team of officers who are exclusively attached to various ministries and departments for the purpose of assisting them in disseminating information to the media. They also provide feedback to their respective ministries and departments. As part of the Special Services, the Feedback Cell in the PIB prepares a daily digest and special digests based on news stories and editorials f rom national as well as regional dailies and periodicals. The Feature Unit of the Special Services of the Bureau provides backgrounders, updates, features and artistic production. These are circulated in the national network and also sent to the Regional and Branch Offices or translation and circulation to the local Press. PIB arranges photo coverage of Government activities and the photographs are supplied to dailies and periodicals published in English and other Indian languages all over the country. During 1998-99, 2,78,485 photographs were supplied to the newspapers and periodicals. The PIB is linked with 30 of its Regional and Branch Offices over computer network to facilitate speedy feeding of information. The Bureau has a Home Page on Internet which makes available publicity material such as press releases, features, photos and graphic for international consumption. The PIB internet home page is genial at website www. nic. in/IndiaImage/PIB.\r\nThe press releases from the B ureau are also faxed through computers to local newspapers as well as all resident correspondents of the important outstation newspapers. PIB has started photo transmission by computer to its offices. PIB is affiliated to its 22 regional-centres by video conferencing system. This enables media persons at regional centers to participate in press conferences in New Delhi and also in other parts of the country. PIB provides accreditation facility to media persons so as to make easy access to information from the government sources. 1,006 correspondents and 226 cameramen are accredited with the BureauÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters. Besides, bout 133 technicians and 56 editors/media critics have also been granted these professional facilities. The BureauÃ¢â¬â¢s eight Regional Offices are located at Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Calcutta, Lucknow, Guwahati, Bhopal and Hyderabad. All the Regional Offices, Branch Offices and information centres are linked with PIB headquarters by teleprinter a lso. A National Press Centre set up in the Press Information Bureau, New Delhi serves as a nerve centre for both nationalMass Communication and international Press. The Centre has all the facilities of international standards like a telecommunication centre, a press conference hall and a cafeteria. NEWS AGENCIES PRESS TRUST OF INDIA\r\nIndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest news delegacy, Press Trust of India is a non-profit overlap cooperative owned by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s newspapers with a mandate to provide efficient and unbiased news to all its subscribers. Founded on 27 August 1947, PTI began functioning from 1 February 1949. PTI offers its news services in the English and Hindi languages. Bhasha is the Hindi language news service of the self-assurance. PTI subscribers include 450 newspapers in India and scores abroad. All major TV/Radio channels in India and several abroad, including BBC in London, receive PTI service. The news services are provided at speeds up to 1,200 bits per second ( about 1,400 speech per minute) by satellite, data channels and ticker lines.\r\nPTI is now on the Internet too and its website address is: http:/ www. ptinews. com. With a staff of over 1,500 including 400 journalists, PTI has over 100 bureaux across the country and foreign correspondents in major cities of the world including Beijing, Bonn, Cairo, Dhaka, Islamabad, London, Moscow, New York and Washington. In addition, about ccc stringers contribute to the news file at home while 20 part-time correspondents bring news from the rest of the world. Besides the English and Hindi language news services, the other services of the agency include the on-line Photo Service, mailer packages of Feature, Mag, Graphics, Science Service, Economic Service and Data India, nd screen-based services as News-scan and Stockscan. PTI has a television wing, PTI -TV, whi ch provide s spot cove rage and make s corporat e documentaries on fitting terms. PTI has arrangements with Reuters and AFP for distri bution of their news in India and with the Associated Press for its photo service and international commercial information. PTI is a partner in Asia Pulse International, a Singapore-registered company, create by PTI and five other Asian media organisations to provide an on-line data bank on economic developments and business opportunities in Asian countries. PTI is also a participant in Asianet, a cooperative arrangement among 12 news agencies f the Asia-Pacific region for distribution of the corporate and government press releases. PTI is a prima(p) partner in the kitten of News Agencies of the nonaligned Countries and the Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies. The agency contributes its news to these two news exchange arrangements and in turn receives news from the other participating members for its use. PTI has just completed 50 years of its operations. The DepartmentMass Communication of Posts brought out a special 15-rupee multi-colour, multi-lingual stamp on PTI to ma rk its golden jubilee. President K. R. Narayanan released the stamp on 5 butt against 1999. another(prenominal) highlight of the celebrations was a 2- ay international seminar on media issues in New Delhi on 12 and 13 swear out 1999 which was inaugurated by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and attended by a galaxy of media personalities both from India and abroad. UNITED NEWS OF INDIA United News of India (UNI) was registered as a company in 1959 and began its news operations from 21 March 1961. UNI is now one of the largest news agencies in Asia with over 100 bureaux in India and abroad. It has more than 1,000 subscribers in the country and over 30 abroad. Its news service is provided to subscribers in four Gulf countries as well as Mauritius and Bhutan. It has reporters in 400 big and small towns in India. Its orrespondents are located in a number of world capitals also. UNI also has collaboration with a number of foreign news agencies. It has more than 300 journalists works full time and about 400 as stringers. UNI launched a full-fledged Indian language news service Univarta, in Hindi in May 1982. A decade later, it launched Urdu Service on teleprinter for the first time in the world. Other teleprinter services of the news agency include UNIFIN, a specialised service for banking, financial and commercial organisations as well as UNISTOCK, a service for stock exchanges and stock brokers. In July 1986, UNI started its television wing which provides news eatures, newsclips and documentaries for Doordarshan and other organisations. Another specialised service run by the news agency is UNISCAN, a news service fed into television sets. A national photo service, started in 1987, is another pioneering venture. UNI also supplies computerdesigned graphics in ready-to-use-form on economic and other topical subjects on a regular basis. NON-ALIGNED NEWS AGENCIES syndicate The Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) is an arrangement for exchange of news among the news agencies of non-aligned countries who for long have been victims of imbalances and bias in the flow of news. The Pool came into existence in 1976 with India as its first Chairman (1976-79).\r\nThe Pool is a worldwide operation embracing four continents, viz. , Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. The Pool news is exchanged in four languagesÃ¢â¬English, French, Spanish and Arabic. Pool activities are coordinated by an elected body known as the arrange delegacy with a Chairman as its head. The Chairmanship, is co-terminus with the term of office of the organize committee and goes by rotation. The Chairman and members of the set up Committee are elected on the basis of regional representation, continuity, active participation and rotation. The Coordinating Committee meets once a year and the meetings are aerofoil to all member agencies. Mass Communication Advt.\r\nMass Communication Six General Conferences and 17 meetings of the Coordinating Committee have taken place sin ce the stemma of the Pool. The last General Conference of the Pool was held in capital of Iran in June 1992, when the Iranian news agency IRNA assumed the Chairmanship of the Pool from ANGOP of Angola. The countries elected to the Coordinating Committee in Tehran were India, Indonesia, Vietnam, DPR Korea, Kuwait, Syria, Mongolia, Bahrain, Afghanistan, Lebanon and Oman from Asia; Angola, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Congo, Ethiopia, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Zambia from Africa; Yugoslavia from\r\nEurope; and Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela from Latin America. At the Tunis General Conference of the Pool in November 1982 a resolution was adopted to form a Monitoring Group, for closer review and monitoring of the Pool operations. The Monitoring Group was last reconstituted in Tehran in 1992 when Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Libya, Zimbabwe, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Yugoslavia were elected to it. India has played a spanking role in the creation and expansion of the Pool. India News Pool Desk is operated by Press Trust of India. The agency receives news copy from Pool Partners and in turn contributes Indian news nto the exchange arrangement on a daily basis. The incoming news relations from Pool member agencies into PTI is in the range of about 15,000 words per day. PTIÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution into the network is about 7,000 words per day. The news is exchanged through a network of statellite/terrestrial/E-mail communication cerebrate with Antara (Indonesia), Bernama (Malaysia), Lankapuvath (Sri Lanka), GNA (Bahrain), VNA (Vietnam), Prensa Latina (Cuba), Tanjug (Yugoslavia), BSS (Bangladesh), RSS (Nepal), MENA (Egypt) and NAMPA (Namibia). Leading national dailies of the country publish between 20 to 30 Pool items a month. As part of the News Pool operation, the Indian Institute of Mass\r\nCommunication, New Delhi, which is recognised as a premier institute for traini ng in journalism in the Non-Aligned countries, has been offering a regular course in News Agency Journalism. The five-month twice a year course is popular with journalists belonging to the member agencies of the Pool. PRESS COUNCIL OF INDIA The Press Council of India has been established under an Act of Parliament for the purpose of preserving the granting immunity of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of newspapers and news agencies in India. The Chairman of the Council is by convention, a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India. The Council has 28 members Ã¢â¬ 20 from the newspaper world, ive are Members of Parliament (three nominated by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and two by the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha) and remain three are nominated by the Sahitya Academy, the eject Council of India and the University Grants Commission. The Council is reconstituted every three years. The Council has its own source or revenue in that it collects levy from the re gistered newspapers and news agencies. It also receives grantin-aid from the Central Government for performing its functions. Mass Communication As an autonomous quasi-judicial body, the aim of the Press Council is to sell ethics and to inculcate principles of self-regulation among the Press.\r\nIt also keeps under review any development likely to interfere with the freedom of the Press. The Council discharges its functions primarily through adjudications on complaint cases received by it, either against the Press for violation of journalistic ethics or by the Press for check with its freedom, where the Council is satisfied during the inquiry that a newspaper or a news agency has offended against the standards of journalistic ethics or public taste or that an editor or working journalist has commit any professional misconduct, the Council may warn, admonish or censure them or disapprove of their conduct. The Council is also mpowered to make such observations as it may think fit i n respect of the conduct of any authority, including Government, for meddlesome with the freedom of the press. The decisions of the Council are final and cannot be questioned in any court of law. During 1998-99, the Press Council of India received 1,213 complaints of which 361 were filed by the Press and 852 were against the Press. The Council adjudicated 342 cases. 575 cases were dismissed by the Council for lack of able grounds for inquiry. The Council disposed of 917 matters during 1998-99. The Council has also suo moto initiated studies on various matters that had bearing on the freedom of the Press and its standards. During 998-99 the Council prepared a report on Ã¢â¬Å"Right to privacy of Public Figures and the PressÃ¢â¬Â and formulated guidelines to achieve a balance between the right to privacy of public persons and right of the Press to have access to information of public interest and importance. The Council also prepared a report on Press Coverage of the twelfth Gene ral Elections on 2 June 1998 which gave an overview as to how the Press covered election news. In its advisory capacity, the Council considered and rendered its opinion to various authorities and organisations in matters relating to Press freedom. The Press Council of India is an active member of the World\r\nAssociation of Press Council (WAPC), an umbrella organisation of Press Councils and similar bodies act to championing the cause of free speech and freedom of responsible Press on international level. The Council organised the fifth International Conference of World Association of Press Councils on 4-5 April 1998 in New Delhi to mark the fiftieth year of Independence. Approximately 40 representatives of International Media/ Press Organisations of 19 countries attended the Conference apart from 200 distinguished Indian participants. The National Press mean solar day (16 November) celebrations this year were dedicated to the memory of late Nikhil Chakravartty, a renowned journal ist ho was also a member of the Council. On 16-17 November 1998 the Council organised a two-day Nikhil Chakravartty biography Seminar. The Seminar was also attended by prominent-media representatives from the SAARC countries. The National Press Day celebrations were organised atMass Communication the state/ order level by authorities, press organisations and associations throughout the country. look for REFERENCE AND TRAINING DIVISION The Research, Reference and Training Division (RR&TD) functions as an information servicing agenc\r\n'