Saturday, August 31, 2019
The Jacksonian democrats saw themselves as the guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. However, were they really all they claimed to be? They did attempt to increase the power of lower classes while decreasing the influence of the rich and powerful. Economically, they benefited from governing during a time of huge advances in transportation, which boosted commerce and helped the common man. The Jacksonian democrats portrayed themselves as saviors of the common people, but this is a controversial subject. They were unusually wealthy, supported equality between white men only, enacted devastating economic policies, and disregarded the capability of the federal government. The Jacksonians saw themselves as guardians but as for the people, only a select few may have seen that. During the Jacksonian reign, numerous advancements sped up the growth of the United States. A market revolution occurred as cash-crop agriculture and capitalist manufacturing replaced artisan economy. Despite the prosperity, a split was emerging between the industrializing, urban north, agrarian, rural South, and the expanding West. The Jacksonians passed the Tariff of 1828, which opened opportunity for western agriculture and New England manufacturing, but was damaging to the South. Andrew Jackson believed that the US bank placed too much control into the hands of a wealthy few (Document B). Therefore, Jackson vetoed the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s re-charter in 1832. In attempt to benefit the lower, working classes, he placed the federal money in Ã¢â¬Å"petÃ¢â¬ state banks. This attempt weakened the national currency. Like most Jacksonian economic policies, it failed. Jacksonians tried to assist only the whites through economic policies but failed in that also. Foreign visitors viewed that in America, every man is free and independent (Document D), but there was great division in American attitude. Disturbances and riots broke out across the country by minorities (Document E), because they were not included in the equality efforts of the Jacksonians, which were focused on white males. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s hypocrisy and brutality in his Indian removal practices showed the non-universalÃ principles held by the democrats. The unconstitutional, uneven power in the three branches of government was revealed when Jackson violated chief justice MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s decision on the Cherokee when he forced them out. Resulting in the Ã¢â¬Å"Trail of TearsÃ¢â¬ (Document G) Fearful of angering Southern voters, Jacksonians veered away from extending equality policies to slaves. Women as well received little betterment during the Jacksonian era. Although viewed as defenders of all common men, Jacksonian democrats shunned minorities and only assisted white me n. Andrew Jackson was the first president to fully use the powers of the executive branch and establish it as an equal if not superior branch. Henry Clay viewed Jackson as dictatorial and unconstitutional and tried to make others see that, but Jacksonian propaganda continued to portray Jackson as a common man. Jacksonian democrats did not keep the three branches of government separate and equal, like it says in the constitution. Jacksonians were strict constitutionalists, vetoing things that did not benefit the whole country and eliminating the bank. However, they also participated in the burning nationalism existing at the time. Jacksonians believed in a firm union. In the compromise Tariff of 1832, they reduced the previous tariffs, but also included a Force Bill, which authorized the President to use arms to collect dues in South Carolina, which goes against the Jacksonian belief in statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and their disbelief in a strong military. Jacksonian democrats were above all outstanding propagandists. They were able to portray themselves as defenders of the common man, while they usually tended to be anything but common. They were wealthy and often thought that Ã¢â¬Ëcommon manÃ¢â¬â¢ officials were inefficient and corrupt. They also tried to further reform movements but ended up hurting the economic opportunity. Although often supporters of statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and individuality, they also were strong nationalists. Jacksonians strived to preserve the unifying principles that the Constitution contained, but acted in opposition of it when they asserted the overwhelming power of the executive branch. Jacksonian democracy did allow more people to vote than ever before and made government more directly responsible to the people. Finally, they established a strong executive, directly responsible to the people, andÃ increased faith in government. Overall, Jacksonians honestly attempted to help common Americans.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The sheer lyrical power of metaphor can be found throughout GhalibÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry. Ghalib utilizes this figure of speech, I believe, to help us connect to and really experience what he is trying to tell us about life, love, and hardship. It seems that, through metaphor, he implores us to delve deeper into his writings and enter into the suffering, heartache, alienation, and ambition that marked his entire life. Using ghazalÃ¢â¬â¢s from the Joy of the Drop website, I will examine and discuss the verses that I thought to be the most profound and inspiring. Ã¢â¬ËI have taken to grave the deep scar of happiness hile she stands above in her hundred colorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Happiness, in this line, has left Ghalib critically wounded. Whether in his pursuit of an ideal life or a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal life, whatever Ã¢â¬ËhappinessÃ¢â¬â¢ is to him, he has not only failed to achieve it, but it has succeeded in ruining him. The beloved seems to stand, unscathed and lofty, above the defeated Gha lib, still adorned with the pristine and elaborate clothing that Ghalib has ascribed to her. We know from historical accounts of GhalibÃ¢â¬â¢s life that he searched, unsuccessfully, for influence, status, and financial stability, none of which he would be able to grasp in his lifetime.This may be the ever- unreachable Ã¢â¬ËhappinessÃ¢â¬â¢ he is referring to here. The beloved seems to have not only found this happiness but fully abides in this state of being. Ã¢â¬ËAs a boy I almost threw stones at that crazed lover trapped always in desire but at last I remembered Leaving I bear the scars of an unfulfilled longing to exist like an extinguished candle I know no place of friendshipÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Pursuit has unraveled the strings of beauty's veil leaving nothing but threads for those who can seeÃ¢â¬â¢ These lines, rich with metaphor, point to a beaten and existentially muzzled Ghalib.Married at thirteen and without a proper education or monetary income; GhalibÃ¢â¬â¢s inner struggle with this life, that had seemingly been thrust upon him, can be seen in the above verses(Ahmad). Feeling subdued, Ghalib seems to flee from his boyish desires, but he is not able to fully recover from the unfulfilled dreams and aspirations that were the sum of his longings. An Ã¢â¬Ëextinguished candleÃ¢â¬â¢ is used here as simile concerning friendship and community. An Ã¢â¬Ëextinguished candleÃ¢â¬â¢ does not have purpose and is discarded or overlooked when it no longer gives, or is able to give, light.After fleeing desire and experiencing loss of purpose and meaning, Ghalib uses metaphor to reveal something philosophically profound. Pursuit Ã¢â¬Ëunraveling the veilÃ¢â¬â¢ of beauty to uncover nothing can be seen as a moment where Ghalib wonders if his desire and longing to exist mean anything at all. What if, in the chasing of a pre-conceived notion of a beautiful life, we find that the Ã¢â¬ËbeautyÃ¢â¬â¢ in that particular life doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exists. How deva stating! Maybe this verseÃ¢â¬â¢s metaphor of beautyÃ¢â¬â¢s veil shows us that unless we can learn to free ourselves from that desire-driven pursuit, we will be forever tormented in life.This can be found in Buddhist teachings and although, buddhism wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as large in India at the time, it still might have had subtle influences on a well versed and knowledgeable Ghalib. Ghalib somewhat hints at religiously-influenced, philosophical concepts, at times while communicating it using metaphor; as can be seen in these verses: Ã¢â¬ËWho has seen the single face of the beloved if one of us glimpsed her shadow she unravelsÃ¢â¬â¢ One could surmise from GhalibÃ¢â¬â¢s verses, like this one, that his life was one of spiritual seeking and questioning. The unraveling of the shadow of the beloved points towards the idea that we cannot pigeonhole God.Seemingly, God, according to Ghalib, is elusive and Ã¢â¬ËbeyondÃ¢â¬â¢ what we know of Her. As soon as we have developed a theologica l rule about who God is; She vanishes and we are left with only a glimpse of the smallest speck of understand. His deep devotion to religious mystery and unknowing was juxtaposed with his brilliant subversiveness concerning fundamental views of God in Islamic influenced, 19th century, India. Ã¢â¬ËAt every step I am closer only to knowing the distance as fast as I run the desert runs onÃ¢â¬â¢ This metaphor of a running desert leads one to believe that Ghalib realized that very few things are graspable in this life.It seems the more you learn the more you realized you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. The desert is in a sense, dead, and the barren wasteland can be hard to travel. This sheds light on the early maturity of Ghalib. It sounds like the wisdom of an old man but he was probably very young when he wrote this. In all his searching and coming up unfulfilled, Ghalib probably turned to abusing drink at an early age. Some of his most comical and sorrowful lines involve wine. Ã¢â¬ËYou shoul d always be drunk that too is wisdom the self holds a cabinet for every liquor, Viewing the Ã¢â¬ËselfÃ¢â¬â¢ as a Ã¢â¬Ëcabinet for every liquorÃ¢â¬â¢ is a clever way of saying that you are a lush.And in this particular verse, Ghalib, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just mention wine. He is willing to fill his cupboards with all types of liquor; possibly to numb his sorrows. Wine or drink also Ã¢â¬Ëloosened or freed Ghalib to be himself. Wine, Ã¢â¬Ëmelting a bottleÃ¢â¬â¢ that he is hiding in, can be a reference to the release of the strangle-hold of inhibitions that comes when one drinks. No telling how many ghazals were written under the influence. This verse also seems to hint at the dangerously intoxicating power of love. Both have the ability to destroy. Ã¢â¬ËIf love burns more than the heart avoid love ven wine melts the bottle I hide inÃ¢â¬â¢ Ghalib was a genius, a lover, a seeker, a drinker, and probably had a better grasp on what the effects of longing-love, as apposed to emo tional romance, had on a person(Ahmad). Ã¢â¬ËNo longer ask about those seekers of love time has illuminated their bodies of griefÃ¢â¬â¢ We see this grief reflected in his ghazals and we learn about his personal experiences through his biographies. The power he evokes in his verses by using metaphor is what inspires me to keep reading and studying this great poet. Ahmad, Aijaz, ed. Ghazals of Ghalib. Columbia University Press, 1971.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Attack or Penalty When explaining the physical quarrel between two adults, the term is attacked and beaten. Attacks on individuals not only have a direct influence, but in severe cases their impact lasts for a lifetime. In any of the 50 states, people over the age of 18 are intentionally attacked, strikes and corporal punishment are criminal proceedings. However, the law does not apply to the physical forces used by minors. Spanking, whip, paddling are general references to this form of punishment. Using physical violence and self-esteem, Pearson's relevance is in the use of strict discipline and parenting practices, the use of strict discipline and the use of father's physical assault, and the use of strict discipline and pride. Table 1 shows the correlation between strict discipline and parenting style. Table 2 shows the correlation between strict discipline and self-esteem, and the correlation between strict discipline and the use of physical attacks. Discipline style of parents: Study on the influence of university youth development Attack or Penalty When explaining the physical quarrel between two adults, the term is attacked and beaten. Attacks on individuals not only have a direct influence, but in severe cases their impact lasts for a lifetime. In any of the 50 states, people over the age of 18 are intentionally attacked, strikes and corporal punishment are criminal proceedings. However, the law does not apply to the physical forces used by minors. Spanking, whip, paddling are some general references. Fines for criminal attacks are fine, imprisonment, or both. Punishment becomes more serious as attacks become more intense. Many states have enacted rules to classify criminal acts into various degrees. As with serious attacks, the severity of the crime, the degree of violence and injury, and the criminal intent of the defendant are the factors determining the judgment. 1) v. As long as the target knows the danger, regardless of whether it succeeds or not, it attempts to threaten or attack others. Attackers must be able to attack reasonably. In some states, if the attack is to use a fatal weapon (like a rifle and a rifle), the intended victim need not know the danger. In other state laws, different degrees of attack (first or second) are distinguished, depending on whether actual blows, injuries, or just threats exist.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Management - Essay Example The company does not offer its clients any post-sales service of further support. Catherine's company is responsible for advertising campaigns for the business, thus it delivers the marketing message to customers directly. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s company sells its products through builders, electrical retailers, and department stores. Therefore, the target market of this company is more definite than that of Catherine's business. Still, the business works with most of its clients indirectly. The target market is narrower than that of CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s company. Though some clients are dealt with directly, most of the information the business can get about the end users may come from the retailers. The company offers its customers help repairing the goods and solving warranty issues. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s company, though does implement some internal marketing, communicates its message to the customers through builders, electrical retailers, and department stores AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s company is a retailer of motor cars and, therefore, has direct contact with its customers. The target market is relatively narrow is even geographically bound. Nevertheless, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s salespeople closely work with the prospects. Therefore, the company, since has a direct communication with the customers, can gather information about them directly. The mechanics of the company are to help clients if they have any problems with the car after itÃ¢â¬â¢s purchased. AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s companyÃ¢â¬â¢s direct responsibility is to implement its marketing strategies on its own. So companyÃ¢â¬â¢s salespeople, in most cases, are the ones who deliver the marketing message to the clients. 2. How would these differences provide challenges for each general manager? CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s companies have limited opportunities for receiving customer feedback. Such feedback, when integrated into the CRM process and communicated to the customer contact employees would improve the effectiveness of b usiness-customers communication. In addition, frequent and more improved communication would improve customersÃ¢â¬â¢ efficiency in using the products of the companies and, as a result, increase the rates of customer satisfaction and loyalty. However, such improvements in communication would require the companies to improve their internal communication channels and modify communication processes for them to deliver more valuable information about the customers. For CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s company this would mean imposing on the franchisees the responsibility to gather customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s company would have to work closer with its retailers in order for them to give information about the end users of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s company would have to implement a program that would ensure customer feedback is gathered, analyzed and used properly. Among the advantages of closer and improved communication with the clients is, first of all, leads gener ation. More personalized approach to sales would enable all the three companies to receive information on the potential clients from the existing ones. It is especially appropriate for AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s business model. In addition, word of mouth Ã¢â¬â information exchange between people Ã¢â¬â is to be of a great help if the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clients are satisfied and loyal. At the same time, improving communication with the customers, as well as communication channels, would require each company to somewhat restructure their sales strategies and business structures. New forms of communication should be
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Give a history of the Catholic Church on the death penalty and note how it has changed over time - Research Paper Example In the early stage, the catholic churches are considered to be the higher legal authorized body. During the middle ages, the people duly followed the pathway of churches. The Catholic Church is identified to follow capital punishment. However, presently, it has a strict negative statement about capital punishment. According to Catholic teaching, punishment is used against a crime with the aim of defending a society and in case of the failure of defending a society from such criminals, capital punishment should be used (Uelmen 355-356). The prime intention of the study is to reveal the role of the Roman Catholic churches towards providing judgment against a punishment. Apart from this, the study describes about the importance of churches for sentencing capital punishment. Contextually, the study will also reveal the transaction of the traditional Catholic Church in the present day context. The term capital punishment is accustomed and well known in the society. Capital punishment is also ascertained as death penalty in several countries. The law or the rule of death penalty was established during the period of 18th century B.C. The law of death penalty was introduced by Hammurabi, King of Babylon. Death penalty was introduced by King Hammurabi for different crimes and offences. Apart from this, death penalty was also followed during the 14th century by different legal bodies and churches. Besides that, Britain also established the law of sentencing death penalty as a punishment to those people who are committing any criminal offences. With the inspiration from Britain in providing the capital punishment, America also follows the tradition of capital punishment. It is ascertained that America having the highest records in sentencing punishment through death penalty. It has been affirmed that during the middle ages when British people entered America for shelter, Americ ans brought the practices of
Monday, August 26, 2019
Article # 8 (due 11-16) - Essay Example The total cost of NovaHealth per member had reduced by 16.5 percent to 33 percent as compared to non-Aetna members. The program major achievement is cost savings resulting from decreased readmissions and emergency department usage. According to the article, such partnership will lead to savings. The money saved can be used in the improving reimbursement to primary care physicians. The article stipulates that such results can only be achieved when there is implementation of several essentials. The two organizations had to adopt electronic health record in order to facilitate data sharing and analysis. The communication and trust between the organizations is also vital for the success of the program. The health plan requires the assurance that healthcare providers are delivering the highest quality services at the lowest possible cost. On the other hand, healthcare providers require health plan willingness to share with them accurate data. According to the articles, the success of the program has motivated NovaHealth and Aetna to plan on extending the program to all NovaHealth patients and AetnaÃ¢â¬â¢s non-Medicare members. I feel that such partnership should be encouraged so as to improve healthcare delivery and save
Sunday, August 25, 2019
EMC Plc Strategic Management - Essay Example WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, existing companies have barriers to new entrants such established market strength and shares of the already established firms, cumbersome process of registration, high initial capital outlay, and developed brand loyalty amongst existing customers. As such, new entrants are likely to find it difficult to penetrate into such existing markets and industries calling for efficient and effective strategies. Regarding established industries and market, automotive industry and market is one of the deeply established with many players but controlled by few. Some of the great players within the industry include GM, Ford, Daimler, Chrysler, Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Hyundai Motor, Mazda, and Fiat amongst others (Nieuwenhuis & Wells, 2005; p 69). European Motor Company (EMC) operated as part of a large industrial conglomerate with interests in the aerospace, defence and medical sectors before is acquisition several years ago to an automotive group who made significant investment in the company for a few years. Nevertheless, the automotive group felt unable to support the business any further because of a rapidly declining market share. The following is an analysis of EMC Plc and the automotive industry. Main analysis of this paper focuses on both internal and external market factors. Attaining such an analysis is possible through various strategic management tools and models such as PESTLE, SWOT, PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces, and Critical Success Factors that have so far been of importance to the organization. In addition, this analysis focuses on strategic direction of EMC Plc covering a period of 5 years (Nieuwenhuis & Wells, 2005; p 75). Such strategic direction employs the use of strategic defining tools and concepts such as mission, vision, overall target markets, strategic rationale, as well as financial objectives. The analysis winds up by providing strategic development and progress coupled with reflective portfolio. In order to attain these, the paper is divided into three parts with different sections. Part 1: Initial Strategic Position and Intentions 1.1 External and Internal Initial Situation Industries and firms face different factors both from within and outside. External environmental factors refer to those that business organizations and industries have no control over for instance, political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, legal, and environment. On the other hand, internal environmental factors are those that a firm or industry may control such as the strengths, weakness, threats, and opportunities (Watson & Head, 2009). The following discussion uses various tools to explain automotive industryÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental factors and their effects on EMC PlcÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. 1.1.1 PESTLE Analysis EMC Plc is likely to experience political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, legal, and environment as illustrated in Appendix 1(a). EMC Plc experiences political stability and advantages from various political factors such as degree of government involvement in business activities, the serene political atmosphere that European
Why is the abortion issue back again - Essay Example Republicans traditionally oppose abortion whereas Democrats support it. This paper analyses the reasons why Republicans brought back the abortion issue again at present. The major reason for bringing abortion issue back in the public debate is the forthcoming presidential election. Republicans clearly know that they need a serious issue to counter the increasing popularity of President Obama. It is believed that the popularity of Obama, which was once on the decline, started to grow again after the killing of Osama. Obama is going to contest the presidential elections for the second consecutive time and ordinary election issues may not reduce the public support enjoying at present by Obama. The above awareness forced the Republicans to bring back the old abortion issue once again to attack the democrats. In fact Republicans are adopting a dual standard in their policies. Ã¢â¬Å"If the Republicans had wanted to prevent abortions, they would have funded a thorough and mandatory sex education initiative from the earliest grades in all schools and combined it with the distribution of free contraceptives in all high schools, public and privateÃ¢â¬ (Sc haeffer). President Obama signed an executive order on March 24, 2010 which forced the Republicans to raise the abortion issue again. According to this executive order or Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Ã¢â¬Å"it is necessary to establish an adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman would be endangered)Ã¢â¬ (Montanaro). American government is currently reducing its involvement in many of the public utility services like, healthcare, transportation, telecommunications, drinking water projects etc. In healthcare sector, government spending has been reduced considerably over the past few
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Policy and Practice in the Education of Bilingual Children - Essay Example The possibility is that the other language is learned after learning the first one. Many of the bilingual people grow up in an environment where two languages are being spoken simultaneously. In countries like America, bilinguals are usually found to be the children of immigrants. This is because these children speak their parent's native language during childhood and at home, whereas they speak English in school and with their friends. Therefore, the primary socialization is in the native language, and the secondary is in English. This makes the children bilingual. However, it is not only the immigrants who tend to be bilinguals, but there are many people such that they speak English at school and some other language at the workplace. Moreover, the influence of some significant person also helps a child to develop skills of two or more languages. We can find a number of multilingual and bilinguals in many countries. Moreover, in others, we see that almost every person is bilingual. Talking about India, in some of the parts of India, a child is usually aware of more than one language (Birner 1994, pg.2-3). Cognition technically refers to thinking. Moreover, the entire process of cognition is related to the processing of human-like information and the application of knowledge and change of preferences. This process of cognition is either natural, artificial, conscious or unconscious. This is the reason why they are analyzed from different perspectives and in different contexts. Cognition can be applied to anesthesia, neurology, and various other subjects such as psychology, philosophy, systematic and computer science. Some concepts such as the mind, reasoning, perception, intelligence, and learning are abstract concepts with which cognition is closely related. Cognition can be otherwise regarded as an abstract property of advanced living organisms.Ã Ã
Friday, August 23, 2019
Inequality of bargaining power in the music industry - Essay Example The will theory of contract was founded upon the economic principle that the good of all exists in the pursuit of individual, selfish economic gain.1 The exchange between two parties is based upon the principle of Ã¢â¬Å"considerationÃ¢â¬ which Stone defines as Ã¢â¬Å"what one party to an agreement is giving, or promising in exchange for what is being given or promised from the other side.Ã¢â¬ 2 But in truth, classical contract theory may not represent the true will of the parties, resulting in inequitable individual gains to one party3 and according to Baumann, Ã¢â¬Å"the role of the Courts is restricted to enforcing their [the parties] bargained for exchange.Ã¢â¬ 4 As stated by Spencer Nathan Thal, Ã¢â¬Å"the freedom of contract doctrine sanctions every transaction, however unequal the starting points and however unequal the outcome.Ã¢â¬ Where the issue of contracts in the music industry are concerned, the common terms covered are exclusivity of use of material, duration and territories covering use, ownership, copyrights and the right to exploitation of the material6. Exclusive performance over large geographical areas for long periods may render a contract unconscionable for an artist, because as pointed out by Vetrone, most artists never get a fair deal from music and recording companies.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Donation of Constantine Essay The Donation of Constantine has been considered a forgery, especially since 1440 A. D. by Lorenzo Valla in his Declamatio: Ã¢â¬Å"So all these are yours, supreme pontiff? And it is your purpose to recover them all? To despoil all kings and princes of the West of their cities or compel them to pay you a yearly tribute, is that your plan? Ã¢â¬ (Valla, 27) Ã¢â¬Å"The DonationÃ¢â¬ is a very controversial document that became an instrument used by the Papacy to Ã¢â¬Ëofficially justifyÃ¢â¬â¢ its political power and control. This fraudulent document has been thought to have been written 5 centuries later, between 750 and 800 A. D. The basis of the document itself was the transfer of power from Constantine to Pope Sylvester when Constantine converted to Christianity by baptism in 324 A. D. : Ã¢â¬Å"So the pontiffs, who are the representatives of that same chief of the apostles, should obtain from us and our empire the power of a supremacy greater than the earthly clemency of our imperial serenity is seen to have had conceded to it, (Ã¢â¬ ¦)And we ordain and decree that he shall have the supremacy as well over the four chief seats Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople and Jerusalem, as also over all the churches of God in the -whole world. And he who for the time being shall be pontiff of that holy Roman church shall be more exalted than, and chief over, all the priests of the whole worldÃ¢â¬ (Donatio Constantini) The reality, however, was that Constantine had been baptized later in 337 A. D. , by the Bishop of Rome. The donation in question consisted in surrendering the imperial insignia, the Lateran Palace, and the Roman and Italian territories. Besides, Rome was the capital of the great Roman Empire and the seat of the Apostles. So, the idea was that these Bishops of Rome, the representatives of Christ, should inherit Rome and its seat. In the beginning, the Bishop of Rome at the time of Constantine was not a very powerful public figure. Nevertheless, he benefited from his closeness with Constantine who had been in Rome to quietly and gradually assert authority as the head of the EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s religion. (Williams, 522) The rise of the predominance of the Bishops of Rome Ã¢â¬Ëowning Rome and ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢ was subsequently supported by different rulers like Theodosius the Great who instituted a law that stated that any nation seeking the protection of the Pope in Rome would have to become a Christian nation. (Williams, 523) Unfortunately, numerous upheavals in power in the territories surrounding Rome became evident when pagan nations moved into Britain; Arian Kings moved into the remaining West while the Lombards established their domination next door to Rome. They were not the only threat to the authority of the Pope of Rome. At the same time, the emperor of Constantinople had been an enemy of the Pope; the emperor had even tried to assassinate him. (Williams, 524) The only way for the Pope (Stephen II or III) to secure his power was to enlist the help of a powerful ruler with whom he could forge an alliance. This ruler was the Frankish king Pepin III, nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"Le Bref,Ã¢â¬ French for Ã¢â¬Å"the Short. Ã¢â¬ Pepin the Short became an ally against the Lombards who were dangerously threatening to take over all the Italian territory. In order to get the help from the Frankish king, Stephen traveled through the Alps all the way to Gaul where he anointed Pepin as well as his two sons Carloman and Charlemagne. Subsequently, Pepin and his two sons battled the Lombards, beat them, and took over their territory, formerly a Byzantine territory. In order to fulfill their alliance, Pepin gave this territory to Stephen in the Donation of Pepin, freeing Rome from Byzantine control. This conferred authority over these territories was the beginning of the papal states, dramatically increasing the political influence and religious power of the papacy. The papal power was confirmed and supported by Charlemagne. In 799, Pope Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans and sequestered. Charlemagne came to his aid and Leo crowned him emperor on December 25, 800 A. D. Charlemagne became the renewer of the Western Roman Empire and kept up his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with the Pope while becoming his protector. Charlemagne was a ruler always at war for most of his reign and conquered many lands like Saxonia, forcing the pagan population to embrace Roman Catholicism. (Ganhof, 220) (Becher, 19-81) Conclusion The ascension of Charlemagne to the throne originated from his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s alliance with the papacy. Around 750 A. D. , the Donation of Constantine falsely validated the PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s authority on Rome and the Italian territory. This authority was confirmed and supported by Charlemagne whose loyalty to the Pope earned him the imperial seat of the Western Roman Empire. He was crowned in 800 A. D. by Pope Leo III. Works Cited Valla L. Discourse on the Forgery of the Alleged Donation of Constantine. Trans. by Christopher B. Coleman. Scanned Proofread by Jonathan Perry. New Haven: Yale University Press 1922. Hanover Historical Texts Project. 2001. Donatio Constantini. 750-800AD. The Medieval Sourcebook. The Fordham University of Medieval Studies. July 22, 2006: December 3, 2006. Williams SH. The HistorianÃ¢â¬â¢s History of the World: A Comprehensive Narrative of the Rise and Development of the Roman Empire. History Association Publication, 1904. Ganshof, F. L. The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy: Studies in Carolingian History, trans. Janet Sondheimer, Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell University Press, 1971. Becher, M. Charlemagne, trans. David S. Bachrach, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Important Ethical Theories Is Utilitarianism Philosophy Essay One of the most important ethical theories is Utilitarianism. For utilitarianism, moral duty is to be determined through an assessment of the consequences of an action. In other words, utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory of ethics. More specifically, utilitarianism finds moral worth in those actions which maximize overall happiness the happiness of the greatest number of people. The premise of the theory is a naturalistic view of ethics: ethics is said to be associated not only with consequences of actins but, more specifically, with pleasure-maximizing consequences. This is the case because utilitarianism sees human nature as pleasure-seeking. For pleasure you can substitute utility, preference, or happiness if you insist, but the main point remains the same. This is not an implausible human psychology, of course. Ethics cannot be about psychology [it is about what ought to be done and not about what is in fact the case], but ethical theories cannot ignore human psychology, either; if an ethical theory ignored human psychology, it would be running the risk of recommending what might be impossible for human nature what is called supererogation, or sainthood to put it in a different way. Utilitarianism claims to be a theory that appeals to common sense. This is certainly strength and an asset for a theory. It is indeed a matter of common sense that if we want to perform moral deeds toward people, we should wish to make them happy. Pay attention to this: For utilitarianism, it does not matter at all whether we intend to make people happy. As said above, utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory it pays attention to consequences; all that matters is that the outcome of our action redounds to the greatest possible happiness of the greatest possible number. A strange corollary of this is that we are supposed to have done something moral even if our motives for benefiting the greatest possible number of people are not at all moral even if they are self-interested. Notice also that utilitarianism does not recommend that you pay attention to your own happiness and pleasure. Utilitarianism is not a form of moral egoism it is not a theory that tells you to put yourself above everyone else. Utilitarianism does not tell you to put those close to you above all else either. Clearly, if you did that, you would not be taking into account the benefit or happiness of the greatest possible number of people. You might be wondering now: why should one care about the greatest possible number of people? This is not an objection against utilitarianism in particular any more than it is an objection against any ethical theory: why should we care about doing the right thing? This is not always an easy question to answer theoretically but it becomes an easier question once we pay attention to common sense and to the ways in which human beings are constituted and known to comport themselves toward other people. If you want to do the right thing, utilitarianism give s you an objective and almost formulaic answer: act in such a way as to benefit the greatest possible number of people. In other words, you should act in such a way as to maximize the happiness of the greatest number or overall happiness. There are many particular variants of utilitarianism. For some, you maximize happiness of the greatest number; for other versions, you maximize a utility that can be minutely calculated; or the preferences of people, after you ask them directly instead of appealing to expert opinions. But, in any case, for a theory to be utilitarian, what is maximized must be the happiness, utility curves, average utility, preferences, happiness, or whatever of the greatest number. A major disagreement that erupted within utilitarianism from early is this: Do all pleasures count as the same, or is there a hierarchy or ranking order of pleasures with certain refined and distinctly human pleasures counting as much higher than other, lower, pleasures? Bentham, a felicific utilitarian and originator of the utilitarian school of thought, held that all pleasures are the same. It is clear in this that utilitarianism is anti-elitist and egalitarian there can hardly be a more dramatic manifestation than this equal counting of pleasures. It is still necessary to weigh pleasures to multiply them by different numbers as you try to calculate the consequences of your action but the criteria for a differential weighing of pleasures are subjectively felt intensity, duration, purity [no amalgamation with painful after-effects], and other considerations of this nature. John Stuart Mill, on the other hand, who succeeded Bentham in the utilitarian movement, disagreed. Mill thou ght that it is better to be Socrates unsatisfied rather than a pig satisfied, whereas Bentham had famously opined that push pin is as good as poetry push pin being a mindless and elementary game for children. It is controversial which version of utilitarianism is more consistent as an ethical theory. The strengths of utilitarianism are: It is an objective theory it affords you a method for calculating how you should act regardless of personal confusion or momentary perplexity. The theory is also better than many other theories when it comes to dealing with challenging moral dilemmas cases in which it seems that, no matter how you choose to act, you risk failing to perform a basic human duty you have. Utilitarianism is also consistent with many ethical intuitive insights human beings have about what it takes to be human and what is required in performing moral deeds toward ones fellow human beings. Unlike most other ethical theories, utilitarianism has the apparent advantage that it includes in its compass not only rational i.e. human beings, but all sentient beings, which can experience pain and pleasure. So, animals are not left out by utilitarian ethicists and cruelty toward animals can be consistently condemned by utilitarian theory. Utilitarianism is quite straightforward to apply excepting vagueness as to calculation methods and ways of counting intensity and permanence of pleasures, the method is not difficult to understand. The method of utilitarianism is surprisingly consistent with ethical insights from other moral traditions including, for instance, Christianity, which also appeals to human beings to love and benefit and avoid to harm others, and promises recompense of happiness in the form of a good feeling in this life and heaves rewards in the afterlife. Utilitarianism also satisfies another intuition we have about what is needed for an ethical theory: it treats people equally, provided they are equally situated. Conveniently, utilitarianism finds one common denominator pleasure or happiness to which consequences of actions are reduced. This allows for a calculation to be performed, and ones moral duty to be determined, regardless of how complex and challenging the actual case is. There are also problems with utilitarianism. Utilitarians begin with a logically fallacious equivocation on the meaning of the word desirable. Notice that the foundation of utilitarianism its attempt at procuring a proof of its validity consists in its claim that pursuit of happiness is evidently desirable in human life and the claim of utilitarians is that this is so evident that the proof itself is solid and easy to grasp. But the word desirable is equivocal: It can mean something that is desired in fact; or it can mean what should be desired. Utilitarians claim that we can easily see that the latter meaning is implied this is actually question-beginning, because utilitarianism is actually trying to prove to us that pleasure-seeking is desirable in this sense, in the sense of what ought to be desired for others, and for the greatest number of people, in moral action. But, actually, what is more obviously clear is that pleasure-seeking is desirable in the first sense: it is what people actually desire, but we are still awaiting for a proof to the effect that this is what people ought to desire. Other problems are even more serious: It is not clear why anything should be accorded a non-negotiable, infinite, or intrinsic value. Why shouldnt everything be thrown into the utilitarian calculus? This means that even those things which we hold to be intrinsic goods and non-negotiable, are to be added and subtracted and might be dispensable if the outcome is that the greatest possible number benefits. This dispensability must then apply even to rights, to privacy, and to life itself. For instance, why shouldnt we sacrifice one perfectly healthy person so that we can use his internal organs as transplants for ten otherwise viable patients? No matter how you calculate this referring to this particular action of sacrificing this individual the outcome is indeed maximization of overall happiness in the society. Some utilitarians might even suggest that, shocking though this may sound, it is not clear why this exchange of one life for ten is not the moral thing to do. You can construc t other hypotheticals in which sacrifice of ones right might sound morally appropriate if the stakes affect the happiness, or life, of a greater number of individuals. And yet, there is a problem when rights, and even human life, are thrown into the utilitarian calculus. Utilitarians realized that there is a problem here that can prove potentially fatal for the theory. There is an answer within utilitarian theory and the answer consists in the important distinction between act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Everything we have said so far covers act utilitarianism application of a utilitarian calculus with a view to determining what is the moral course of action to take: you should, in this view, do what maximizes overall happiness for the greatest number and you can take into account the long run, and so on. But, for rule utilitarianism, you should actually apply the utilitarian calculus not to the projected consequences of an action but to the projected consequences of adopting a certain rule of behavior for the whole society to follow in the long run. This saves utilitarianism from the embarrassment of cases like the one mentioned above and others like it for instance, cases of sacrificing one innocent person to appease a riotous mob that is threatening many more lives in its violent path, or torturing the innocent daughter of a terrorist to induce the terrorist to turn himself in and prevent several deaths. But, switch now to rule utilitarianism and see what happens: What would be the consequences of adopting as a societal rule the random sacrifice of a healthy person for the sake of organ harvesting? It seems that a society that lived according to this rule could not be a happy society people would be anxious lest the lot fell on them next time organ harvesting became necessary. Still, there are rules which, as a utilitarian, you will have to adopt as maximizing the happiness or utility of the greatest possible number, and which, at the same time, violate individual rights or other values we hold intrinsic and unalienable under most circumstances. This seems to be the Achilles heel of utilitarianism. But do not lose sight of the strengths of utilitarianism mentioned above. Utilitarianism is the alternative to Kants ethical theory called deontology. The two are the two major ethical theories. Defining Utilitarianism. Differing definitions It may be noticed by the scholar of utilitarianism that the definition of the core of the theory (the principle of utility) has changed over the years, such that the modern version has a number of significant differences from that given by Jeremy Bentham: By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness. The modern definition is effectively this: An action is right if it produces as much or more of an increase in happiness of all affected by it than any alternative action, and wrong if it does not. There are a number of differences between the two versions my thoughts on these differences follow. 1. Subject matter The modern version is explicitly to do with right and wrong, and, since utilitarianism is an ethical theory, this would seem to be quite appropriate. Benthams version is about approval and disapproval, and he seems quite unconcerned with right and wrong indeed he goes on to say only that Of an action that is conformable to the principle of utility one may always say either that it is one that ought to be done, or at least that it is not one that ought not to be done. One may say also, that it is right it should be done; at least that it is not wrong it should be done: that it is a right action; at least that it is not a wrong action. When thus interpreted, the words ought, and right and wrong and others of that stamp, have a meaning: when otherwise, they have none. The apparent ambiguity from Bentham may be to cover the (hypothetical) case where two different actions have exactly equivalent results Bentham may simply be avoiding the implication that someone ought do two mutually exclusive actions (if so, he uses a very blunt tool to achieve his task see below). Or, and this is what I am inclined to believe, he just might not be particularly concerned with right and wrong as they are commonly understood. What I mean by this is that if we say, of two possible different exclusive actions, that one leads to a better state of affairs than the other, then we have said all that needs to be said about them to go on to say that the first action is right and the second wrong either adds nothing, or it seems to suggest (some deontologists would say implies) that to do the second action is blameworthy, or rightfully punishable, or morally disgusting or some other phrase indicating a conditioned morality rather than an objective value-maximizing one some thing that Bentham (and myself) would take care to avoid. When right and wrong are stripped of their punishment connotations, I believe they are equivalent to approval or disapproval by a principle, provided that this principle is justified or warranted by the existence of objective (moral) value. 2. Obscurity Part of Benthams definition is quite obscure: according to the tendency it appears to have. Appears? Appears to whom? Is the core evaluating principle of utilitarianism subjective? And why be concerned with appearances rather than the actual effects? I think this is a mistake by Bentham, where he has tried to deal with the problem of uncertainty in the wrong section of his theory. I believe tendency is also open to misinterpretation if it is thought to imply that utility involves (only) a class of actions, but this should not happen since it has already been established that it is for any particular action. 3. Extent Benthams definition is of utility for some particular party, whereas the modern version is for everyone affected by the action. Neither is really what we mean we normally consider that Utility considers all (relevant) interests, which is not necessarily what is being said in the modern version (which is potentially subtly misleading). To illustrate: if I am trying to show that the (specific) action I have just performed was the right one, it is not only those who were affected by this action (compared to inaction) whom we must consider, but also all those who wouldve been affected had I chosen another action instead. I am sure this ambiguity is very common in discussions about Utility, especially those involving an effort to explain utilitarianism in simple (or laymans) terms though whether or not it actually deceives (that is, that people get the wrong impression) I am not so clear about. There is really no need for this ambiguity: we can say simply that the right action is simply the one that maximizes total utility or maximizes total happiness or whatever, we need not say for whom. Any limit we suggest for the scope of our consideration only lengthens the explanation and as weve seen introduces the potential for misunderstanding. So let us agree with Bentham when he decided that the greatest happiness principle is a better mnemonic for the principle of utility than its predecessor the greatest happiness for the greatest number (or the same with good substituted for happiness). And let us hope that any new definition we produce replaces the current one faster than Benthams later suggestion effectively replaced his former for this replacement is, in common usage, yet to occur. 4. Compared to what? According to Bentham, we are concerned with augmentation and diminuation of happiness, which is to say the changes from the present situation. Utility approves of an action if it makes things better, it disapproves of it if it makes things worse; it approves of one action more than another if that action makes things better than the other. The modern version is quite different on this point. What is compared against is not the current situation, but the situations that would result from alternative actions. So of two exclusive actions, both of which would increase the level of happiness compared to the present level but by different (positive) amounts, the modern principle would call the better action right and the not-so-good wrong, whereas Benthams utility would approve of both (but approve of the better one somewhat more) and hold that both actions are right, and ought be done, or at least that they are not wrong, that it is not the case that they ought not be done. It is surprising to note that neither Benthams nor the modern version admit of degrees of right and wrong, where it is quite in accordance with common usage to do so: we may usually speak of the right action in a given situation, the alternative actions beings wrong, but it is quite common to speak of one such alternative action being more wrong than another yet this is quite unaccounted for under these definitions. There is also a potential stumbling-block for the modern versions comparison: it may be thought that, in choosing between alternative actions, that it implies that there are actually some possible alternative actions in existence. This is a problem if the universe (and particularly psychology) is deterministic, for then it will be the case that there are no possible alternative actions. An agent can only do what he does to do something else would take a different agent or a different situation, so given the agent and the situation, only one outcome is possible. If determinism is true, the modern version of utility would (thus interpreted) tell us that everything that happens is right. This problem can be solved only with the acknowledgement that the alternatives under consideration may not actually be possible. In this case, in order to prevent the required analysis of wild fantastical actions, the range must be limited to those actions that can be done, if the agent chooses to do them. That the agent can choose anything other than what he goes on to choose, is (under this interpretation) neither implied nor denied. In contrast, Benthams version is clearly unaffected by the presence or absence of non-deterministic free will: it can go on approving or disapproving of actions whether these actions are necessary or not, and whether there are alternatives or not. If what happens is determined solely by the fundamental laws of physics, as they existed at the big bang, then to that extent Benthams Utility can imply approval or disapproval of the universe as is, has been, and will be. More Bentham Bentham clarifies the position and extent of Utility in various later parts of the text: An action then may be said to be conformable to the principle of utility, or, for shortness sake, to utility, (meaning with respect to the community at large) when the tendency it has to augment the happiness of the community is greater than any it has to diminish it. Notice that, in this expression, utility is concerned with actual not apparent tendencies, and that utility is also shown to apply to the effects on the community at large (which we can take to mean everyone) rather than some specific party. Also: A man may be said to be a partizan of the principle of utility, when the approbation or disapprobation he annexes to any action, or to any measure, is determined by and proportioned to the tendency which he conceives it to have to augment or to diminish the happiness of the community Here I think it is reasonable for this approbation to be determined by the conceived utility of the action, for this is the judgement of a man and a man must make his judgements without full knowledge of the relevant facts. If it were defined by actual rather than conceived utility, a utilitarian would not be a utilitarian when he was factually mistaken! The point about Utility being with regard to the community is also remade here. The History of Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics in the history of philosophy. Though not fully articulated until the 19th century, proto-utilitarian positions can be discerned throughout the history of ethical theory. Though there are many varieties of the view discussed, utilitarianism is generally held to be the view that the morally right action is the action that produces the most good. There are many ways to spell out this general claim. One thing to note is that the theory is a form of consequentialism: the right action is understood entirely in terms of consequences produced. What distinguishes utilitarianism from egoism has to do with the scope of the relevant consequences. On the utilitarian view one ought to maximize the overall good that is, consider the good of others as well as ones own good. The Classical Utilitarian, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, identified the good with pleasure, so, like Epicurus, were hedonists about value. They also held that we ought to maximize the good, that is, bring about the greatest amount of good for the greatest number. Utilitarianism is also distinguished by impartiality and agent-neutrality. Everyones happiness counts the same. When one maximizes the good, it is the good impartially considered. My good counts for no more than anyone elses good. Further, the reason I have to promote the overall good is the same reason anyone else has to so promote the good. It is not peculiar to me. All of these features of this approach to moral evaluation and/or moral decision-making have proven to be somewhat controversial and subsequent controversies have led to changes in the Classical version of the theory. 1. Precursors to the Classical Approach 2. The Classical Approach 2.1 Jeremy Bentham 2.2 John Stuart Mill 3. Henry Sidgwick 4. Ideal Utilitarianism Precursors to the Classical Approach Though the first systematic account of utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), the core insight motivating the theory occurred much earlier. That insight is that morally appropriate behavior will not harm others, but instead increase happiness or utility. What is distinctive about utilitarianism is its approach in taking that insight and developing an account of moral evaluation and moral direction that expands on it. Early precursors to the Classical Utilitarians include the British Moralists, Cumberland, Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, Gay, and Hume. Of these, Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746) is explicitly utilitarian when it comes to action choice. Some of the earliest utilitarian thinkers were the theological utilitarians such as Richard Cumberland (1631-1718) and John Gay (1699-1745). They believed that promoting human happiness was incumbent on us since it was approved by God. After enumerating the ways in which humans come under obligations (by perceiving the natural consequences of things, the obligation to be virtuous, our civil obligations that arise from laws, and obligations arising from the authority of God) John Gay writes: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦from the consideration of these four sorts of obligationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦it is evident that a full and complete obligation which will extend to all cases, can only be that arising from the authority of God; because God only can in all cases make a man happy or miserable: and therefore, since we are always obliged to that conformity called virtue, it is evident that the immediate rule or criterion of it is the will of God. (R, 412) Gay held that since God wants the happiness of mankind , and since Gods will gives us the criterion of virtue, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the happiness of mankind may be said to be the criterion of virtue, but once removed. (R, 413) This view was combined with a view of human motivation with egoistic elements. A persons individual salvation, her eternal happiness, depended on conformity to Gods will, as did virtue itself. Promoting human happiness and ones own coincided, but, given Gods design, it was not an accidental coincidence. This approach to utilitarianism, however, is not theoretically clean in the sense that it isnt clear what essential work God does, at least in terms of normative ethics. God as the source of normativity is compatible with utilitarianism, but utilitarianism doesnt require this. Gays influence on later writers, such as Hume, deserves note. It is in Gays essay that some of the questions that concerned Hume on the nature of virtue are addressed. For example, Gay was curious about how to explain our practice of approbation and disapprobation of action and character. When we see an act that is vicious we disapprove of it. Further, we associate certain things with their effects, so that we form positive associations and negative associations that also underwrite our moral judgments. Of course, that we view happiness, including the happiness of others as a good, is due to Gods design. This is a feature crucial to the theological approach, which would clearly be rejected by Hume in favor of a naturalistic view of human nature and a reliance on our sympathetic engagement with others, an approach anticipated by Shaftesbury (below). The theological approach to utilitarianism would be developed later by William Paley, for example, but the lack of any theoretical necess ity in appealing to God would result in its diminishing appeal. Anthony Ashley Cooper, the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713) is generally thought to have been the one of the earliest moral sense theorists, holding that we possess a kind of inner eye that allows us to make moral discriminations. This seems to have been an innate sense of right and wrong, or moral beauty and deformity. Again, aspects of this doctrine would be picked up by Francis Hutcheson and David Hume (1711-1776). Hume, of course, would clearly reject any robust realist implications. If the moral sense is like the other perceptual senses and enables us to pick up on properties out there in the universe around us, properties that exist independent from our perception of them, that are objective, then Hume clearly was not a moral sense theorist in this regard. But perception picks up on features of our environment that one could regard as having a contingent quality. There is one famous passage where Hume likens moral discrimination to the perception of secondary qualities, such as color. In modern terminology, these are response-dependent properties, and lack objectivity in the sense that they do not exist independent of our responses. This is radical. If an act is vicious, its viciousness is a matter of the human response (given a corrected perspective) to the act (or its perceived effects) and thus has a kind of contingency that seems unsettling, certainly unsettling to those who opted for the theological option. So, the view that it is part of our very nature to make moral discriminations is very much in Hume. Further and what is relevant to the development of utilitarianism the view of Shaftesbury that the virtuous person contributes to the good of the whole would figure into Humes writings, though modified. It is the virtue that contributes to the good of the whole system, in the case of Humes artificial virtues. Shaftesbury held that in judging someone virtuous or good in a moral sense we need to perceive that persons impact on the systems of which he or she is a part. Here it sometimes becomes difficult to disentangle egoistic versus utilitarian lines of thought in Shaftesbury. He clearly states that whatever guiding force there is has made nature such that it is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the private interest and good of every one, to work towards the general good, which if a creature ceases to promote, he is actually so far wanting to himself, and ceases to promote his own happiness and welfareÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (R, 188) It is hard, sometimes, to discern the direction of the because if one should act to help others because it supports a system in which ones own happiness is more likely, then it looks really like a form of egoism. If one should help others because thats the right thing to do and, fortunately, it also ends up promoting ones own interests, then thats more like utilitarianism, since the p romotion of self-interest is a welcome effect but not what, all by itself, justifies ones character or actions. Further, to be virtuous a person must have certain psychological capacities they must be able to reflect on character, for example, and represent to themselves the qualities in others that are either approved or disapproved of. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦in this case alone it is we call any creature worthy or virtuous when it can have the notion of a public interest, and can attain the speculation or science of what is morally good or ill, admirable or blameable, right or wrongÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.we never say ofÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.any mere beast, idiot, or changeling, though ever so good-natured, that he is worthy or virtuous. (Shaftesbury IVM; BKI, PII, sec. iii) Thus, animals are not objects of moral appraisal on the view, since they lack the necessary reflective capacities. Animals also lack the capacity for moral discrimination and would therefore seem to lack the moral sense. This raises some interesting questions. It would seem that the moral sense is a perception that something is the case. So it isnt merely a discriminatory sense that allows us to sort perceptions. It also has a propositional aspect, so that animals, which are not lacking in other senses are lacking in this one. The virtuous person is one whose affections, motives, dispositions are of the right sort, not one whose behavior is simply of the right sort and who is able to reflect on goodness, and her own goodness [see Gill]. Similarly, the vicious person is one who exemplifies the wrong sorts of mental states, affections, and so forth. A person who harms others through no fault of his own Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦because he has convulsive fits which make him strike and wound such as approach him is not vicious since he has no desire to harm anyone and his bodily movements in this case are beyond his control. Shaftesbury approached moral evaluation via the virtues and vices. His utilitarian leanings are distinct from his moral sense approach, and his overall sentimentalism. However, this approach highlights the move away from egoistic views of human nature a trend picked up by Hutcheson and Hume, and later adopted by Mill in criticism of Benthams version of utilitarianism. For writers like Shaftesbury and Hutcheson the main contrast was with egoism rather than rationalism. Like Shaftesbury, Francis Hutcheson was very much interested
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Heart Disease Prediction System Computer Science Essay There are enormous amount of data available from medical industry which could be useful for medical practitioners when it is used for discovering hidden pattern with help of existing data mining techniques. The basic medical records from a patients profile can be useful in identifying hidden pattern with data mining techniques. In this paper, NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm to predict heart disease is implemented with basic records of patients like age, sex, heart rate, blood pressure etc., from a sample dataset. The benefits, limitations, and technical details of this implementation will also be discussed in this paper. 1 Introduction Over these years in medical history, many types of medical problems have been identified and many data are available regarding a particular problem. But not all the medical data are same, but there are many patterns hidden inside those data which needs to be identified. Data mining techniques could help identify these hidden patterns by knowledge discovery. In the medical field, patients health issues are predicted by doctors intuition or experience  where the knowledge rich data is suppressed which results in high medical expenses and unnecessary medical tests. In recent years, there are many researches being conducted in order to find the hidden pattern from basic medical data . Identifying these hidden pattern would result in a developing an efficient decision making system in medical industry which aide as a tool to support doctors decision making or at least serve as a prediction system for any medical issues. In this paper, we have taken into consideration of heart disease and predict it using the set of data that are already in existence with the help of data mining technique. The algorithm that we have chosen is the NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm, this algorithm is ideal for a vast amount of database that may contain hundreds and thousands of rows and columns. The NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm provides the intended output faster and more accurate as the number of data in the database increase. 1.1 Problem Scenario There are only few decision support systems available in medical industry whose functionalities are very limited. As mentioned earlier, medical decisions are made with doctors intuition and not from the rich data from the medical database. Wrong treatment due to misdiagnosis causes serious threat in medical field. In order to solve these issues data mining solution was with help of medical databases was introduced. 1.2 Related Work There are many techniques available to discover knowledge from medical database . Researchers at Southern California used data mining technique to discover the success and failure of back surgery in order to improve medical treatment . Shouman et al  implemented predictive data mining to diagnose heart disease of patients. Palaniappan et al  developed a prototype Intelligent Heart Disease Prediction System (IHDPS), using data mining techniques. 1.3 Objective In this paper, NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm to predict heart disease is implemented with basic records of patients like age, sex, heart rate, blood pressure etc., from a sample dataset. Based on the literature survey NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm was found to be an effective technique. The probabilistic method helped in finding the converse probability of the conditional relationship. The dependence relation may exist between two attributes of data set which can be determined with this algorithm. 2 Data Preparation In order to implement the algorithm, a medical data was required. The sample dataset used for the purpose of implementation of algorithm was obtained from Cleveland Clinic Foundation. The sample of dataset is shown in the below figure (Figure1.) C:UsersMadan KumarDesktopUntitled2.jpg Figure1. Sample dataset 2.1 Dataset Source The Cleveland institute medical data was downloaded from website of University of California, Irvine. 2.2 Dataset Attributes The dataset consists of 16 attributes. The last attribute of dataset consists of value 0 and 1. The value 0 indicates that the patient does not have heart disease whereas 1 indicates that the patient has a heart disease. The prediction of algorithm can be verified with this value while evaluating the algorithm. The first 15 attributes are shown in the figure2. C:UsersMadan KumarDesktopattri.jpg Figure2. Dataset attributes 3 Program Architecture The program was implemented using JAVA. Apache TOMCAT server and MySQL Database is also used. The NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm has three class files: Calculation.java, Prediction.java, and Detection.java. Detection.java reads the data file from the source path and stores the attributes into temporary array list. The mean and standard deviation values calculations are performed and probability calculation is also done in Prediction.java. All the dataset attributes are defined in calculation.java where mean and standard deviation of attributes were calculated. The calculation.java calls the other two classes while executing the program. Figure3 represents the program architecture. C:UsersKirubanidhyDesktopArchitecture.jpg Figure3. Architecture 3.1 Building and running a Demo TOMCAT server is used to present the output in web based form. The output will run in localhost. The MySQL database is used to identify the patient records. At the execution point, the local host is accessed and 15 questions will be displayed which will be obtained from user and algorithm will be called to calculate and predict the disease possibility on that person. A report will be generated at the end of the demo which says if the person is predicted with heart disease or not. In general, 1. Obtains the values from user. 2. Reads the data file. 3. Calls the algorithm and calculates mean, deviation, and probability of attributes. 4. Generates a report displaying the values given with the prediction of disease. 4. Implementation All the attributes of dataset is of a numerical value that has some meaning. The meaning of dataset attributes are as shown in figure2. Example: the attributes sex is denoted with values 1 and 0 where 1 denotes Male and 0 denote Female. Fasting blood sugar values are also denoted using 1 and 0 where 1 denotes >120mg of fasting blood sugar level and 0 denotes These values from the data file are accessed by the NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm. The values 0 and 1 are extracted from data file and stored to an array list for each attribute e.g. age array list, sex array list, and chest pain type array list etc., in order to perform calculation. Here, the values are defined on what those values stands for before storing to the array list. The sample of the interface (for obtaining slope value) is shown in figure4. Here the un-sloping, flat, and down- sloping represents the value 1, 2, and 3 respectively. C:UsersMadan KumarDownloadsUntitled.jpg Figure 4. Interface Sample C:UsersMadan KumarDownloadsUntitled2.jpg Figure5. Sample of report format 5. Modules Description Analyzing the Data set The attribute Diagnosis was identified as the predictable attribute with value 1 for patients with heart disease and value 0 for patients with no heart disease. The attribute PatientID was used as the key; the rest are input attributes. It is assumed that problems such as missing data, inconsistent data, and duplicate data have all been resolved. Naives Bayes Implementation in Mining Bayes Theorem finds the probability of an event occurring given the probability of another event that has already occurred. If B represents the dependent event and A represents the prior event, Bayes theorem can be stated as follows. 5.2.1 Bayes Theorem Prob (B given A) = Prob (A and B)/Prob (A) To calculate the probability of B given A, the algorithm counts the number of cases where A and B occur together and divide it by the cases where A occurs alone. Applying NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes to data with numerical attributes, predict the class using NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes classification: Figure6 (a) Top Mean (b) Bottom Standard Deviation Figure6 (c) Laplace Transform 6. Evaluation User enters the values for the questionnaire to find out whether the patient has a heart disease or not. By feeding sample data from the dataset and performing the mining operations with the NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm, it is found out that the NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm gives 95% probability in predicting if patient have heart disease or not. 95% accuracy is quite good to use as a decision support system. The figure shows the accuracy of NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm (figure7). The figure shows the highest probability of correct predictions and lowest probability of incorrect predictions. C:UsersMadan KumarDesktopUntitled1.jpg Figure7. Model Results of three algorithms  7. Limitations Apart from the benefits like probabilistic approaches and fast reliable algorithm of NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes, the serious shortcoming of the algorithm is its ability in handling small datasets. NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes classifier requires relatively large dataset to obtain best results. Yet, studies showed that Naive Bayes algorithm outperforms other algorithms in accuracy and efficiency. Notable limitation of this paper is the usage of small dataset. This dataset can be used for training or testing purpose only. Also the dataset could include more attributes for a more effective prediction in supporting clinical decisions. 8. Future Work The algorithm is working well with this sample dataset. Implementing the algorithm with large dataset could give better results which can aid as a supporting tool in making medical decisions. In future, other possible algorithms could be implemented where efficiency of all algorithms could be analyzed to decide on best suitable technique in terms of speed, reliability, and accuracy. 9. Conclusion In this paper, NaÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Bayes algorithm is the only algorithm used for calculation of attributes and prediction. Efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm in predicting were discussed. Designing effective models are constrained by size of the datasets and noisy, incorrect, missing data values. The prototype developed so far has been generally tested by computer experts and not by the doctors. For effective understanding of the health issues, medical experts have to work collaboratively and test the prototypes in order to implement the system in real life to support medical experts in taking clinical decisions.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËWhose life is it anyway?Ã¢â¬â¢ follows the story of Ã¢â¬ËKen HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢, a man who tries to exercise a choice over his own life or death after being completely paralysed from the head down. Harrison received these horrific injuries after being involved in a car accident 4 months before the story starts. He is now in constant care within the hospitals walls being treated and cared for by the medical profession. The play centres on HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to exercise a choice over his own life or death with the medical bureaucracy fiercely opposing. The play leads as he takes the medical staff to court to try and exercise this right officially. This play is seemingly unsentimental in which Harrison responds to his plight with wit and clarity and argues his case with power and persuasion. As this play focuses on ones mans wish to die and the issue of euthanasia we as the audience would expect the play to be very emotional. With the storyline, Clark could have easily made this play the opposite of what it actually is, powerful and fast moving. As Harrison had been though such a terrible ordeal we would expect him to be full of self pity and self indulgence and therefore make the play emotional and miserable. Ken is first seen in Act 1, the first impression he makes on the reader is one of a happy and untroubled man. Ã¢â¬ËI used to dream of situations like thisÃ¢â¬ ¦ lying on a bed being massaged by two beautiful women.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is the first of many comical references Ken makes throughout the play, this is a very strong tool that Clarke uses to avoid sentimentality in his play. It shows that Ken isnÃ¢â¬â¢t self indulgent but rather making the best out of his current situation. He is expressing how he feels in the form of humour. This is less emotional than s... ...as purposely avoided. To asses how successful Clarke has been in bringing this serious issue to life we first need to consider our own right to personal choice. Clark has made it very obvious that our own personal choice can sometimes be defied by something as small as the medical bureaucracy. However he has also showed us that with determination, wit and clarity we can argue our right to make our own personal choice. Euthanasia is untimely a very sad issue which is normally dealt with sympathy and self indulgence, Clarke has brought this issue to life and has handled it exceptionally well, he has shown both the comical and sad sides to the debate without showing bias to any side. He has successfully avoided sentimentality in his play by using many different narrative tools such as comedy and rationality and has in the end stopped the play becoming over emotional.
The Importance of Being Earnest A protagonist is described as the main character in the story. The story line revolves around this one character and the events in his/ her life. In the Importance of Being Earnest, Jack Worthing is the protagonist of the play because it is his character that dominates the narrative. His pursuit to marry Gwendolen, and the conflicts and struggles he goes up against to reach his ultimate goal, are traits which develop his character into being the protagonist. For a character to take on the role of protagonist, there always needs to be conflict. Jack WorthingÃ¢â¬â¢s first conflict is getting the approval to marry Gwendolen from her mother, Lady Bracknell. In the beginning of the story when Jack, also referred to as Ernest, proposes to Gwendolen, but is denied the ability to marry Gwendolen until he has passed Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s series of tests; what she sees as a suitable husband for her daughter. This is shown through her statement of: Ã¢â¬Å"I fell bound to tell you that you are not on my list of eligible young menÃ¢â¬ ¦however, I am quite ready to enter your name should your answers be what a really affectionate mother acquiresÃ¢â¬ (Wilde,1438). Earnest informs her that he does not know anything from his childhood, including who his parents are, and why he became an orphan; and now is thought to be unacceptable suitor to marry her daughter, Gwendolen. Lady Bracknell reinforces to Jack that Ã¢â¬Å"to be born, or at any rate bred in a handbag, whether it had handles or not, seems to me to display a contempt for the ordinary decencies of family life that reminds one of the worst excesses of the French revolutionÃ¢â¬ (Wilde, 1440), basically stating that having a hand bag for a parent is an unacceptable Ã¢â¬Å"notion about family lifeÃ¢â¬ (Parker), and needed to find out who his parents are before he can marry Gwendolen. It is this sort of conflict that must arise in order for the play to pursue any further. It is the role of the protagonist to ensure that he continues on his pursuit in order to get what one wants, that being the hand of Gwendolen. Jack lies and discoveries Ã¢â¬Å"of human freedom in protean identityÃ¢â¬ (Parker, 185) which he Ã¢â¬Å"adopt[ed] identities to suit the occasionÃ¢â¬ (parker, 185). All of these identities and secret lives eventually led to GwendolenÃ¢â¬â¢s hand but also the truth of who Jack really was; the true importance of being Ernest, because being Ernest gets him what he wants. The title of the play Ã¢â¬Å"The Importance of being EarnestÃ¢â¬ shows significance because this creates conflict and comedy between the
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Combating Global Warming and Other Problems Associated with Fossil Fuels :: Environmental Renewable Energy Sources Essays
Combating Global Warming and Other Problems Associated with Fossil Fuels To combat global warming and the other problems associated with fossil fuels, the world must switch to renewable energy sources like sunlight, wind, and biomass. All renewable energy technologies are not appropriate to all applications or locations, however. As with conventional energy production, there are environmental issues to be considered. This paper identifies some of the key environmental impacts associated with renewable technologies and suggests appropriate responses to them. A study by the Union of Concerned Scientists and three other national organizations, America's Energy Choices, found that even when certain strict environmental standards are used for evaluating renewable energy projects, these energy sources can provide more than half of the US energy supply by the year 2030. Today the situation in fuel and industrial complexes round the world is disastrous. Current energy systems depend heavily upon fossil and nuclear fuels. What this would mean is that we would run out of mineral resources if we continue consuming non-renewables at the present rate, and this moment is not far off. According to some estimates, within the next 200 years most people, for instance, seize using their cars for lack of petrol (unless some alternatives are used). Moreover, both fossil and nuclear fuels produce a great amount of polluting substances when burnt. We are slowly but steadily destroying our planet, digging it from inside and releasing the wastes into the atmosphere, water and soil. We have to seize vandalizing the Earth and seek some other ways to address the needs of the society some other way. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why renewable sources are so important for the society. In fact, today we have a simple choice Ã¢â¬â either to turn to nature or to destroy ourselves. I have all reasons to reckon that most of people would like the first idea much more, and this is why IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to inquire into the topic and look through some ways of providing a sustainable future for next generations. Wind Energy It is hard to imagine an energy source more benign to the environment than wind power; it produces no air or water pollution, involves no toxic or hazardous substances (other than those commonly found in large machines), and poses no threat to public safety. And yet a serious obstacle facing the wind industry is public opposition reflecting concern over the visibility and noise of wind turbines, and their impacts on wilderness areas.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
THE PAKISTAN WETLANDS PROGRAMME The Ministry of Environment's Pakistan Wetlands Programme DurationJuly 2005- June 2012 StatusOngoing BudgetUSD 3. 6 million Project deliveryUSD 2. 7 million Project delivery (2010) USD 0. 51 million LocationCountrywide Donor Contribution Royal Netherlands Embassy (RNE): USD 4,034,000 Global Environment Facility (GEF): USD 2,253, 000 Federal Government: Ministry of Environment Other: World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF-P) Background:The Pakistan Wetlands Programme (PWP) aims to promote the sustainable conservation of freshwater and marine wetlands and their associated globally important biodiversity in Pakistan. The programme strategy is based on two sub-sets of objectives. The first will provide the required policy, institutional, technical and financial framework and generate positive public support essential for the mainstreaming of wetlands conservation. The second involves the design and implementation of Sustainable, participatory management plans for four independent Demonstration Sites, each chosen to be representative of a broad eco-region in Pakistan.It includes specific mechanisms to secure financial sustainability and enhanced replication and proliferation of viable wetlands management interventions in a nation-wide, on-going wetlands conservation initiative. Despite the generally arid nature of Pakistan's climate, the region supports an estimated 780,000 ha of wetlands that cover 9. 7% of the total surface area of the country. In excess of 225 significant wetlands sites are on record in the prototype Pakistan Wetlands GIS Database developed during the PDF (B) Phase of this Project.Nineteen of these have been internationally recognised by the Ramsar Convention Bureau as being of global importance. The diverse assortment of natural freshwater and marine wetlands that occur within Pakistan support unique combinations of biodiversity. The same resource, however, also sustains an estimated 144 million permanent human resid ents and 3-4 million displaced persons from adjacent countries. The wetlands of the region are, therefore, generally degrading under a broad spectrum of anthropogenic threats that are mainly rooted in poverty but exacerbated by lack of knowledge and mismanagement.Global Significance Pakistan's permanent and ephemeral wetlands are globally significant in two ways; i) In terms of the intrinsic value of their indigenous biodiversity, ii) As an acute example of the poverty/subsistence-use nexus that constitutes one of the most fundamental threats to biodiversity worldwide. The high global significance of Pakistan's wetlands is attributable to the diversity of species that they support. In all, eighteen threatened species of wetlands dependent mammals are found in the country including the endemic Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) and Indus River Dolphin (Plantanista minor).Further, twenty threatened bird species are supported by Pakistan's wetlands in addition to twelve reptiles a nd two endemic species of amphibians. Pakistan's wetlands also support between 191-198 indigenous freshwater fish species, including fifteen endemics and a total of 788 marine and estuarine fish species. The high altitude wetlands, characterised by sites such as Karumbar Lake, situated at an elevation of 4, 150m, and Saucher Lake, at 4,250m on the Deosai Plains, represent a relatively unique category of alpine wetlands that is confined to the Himalaya, Hindukush and Karakoram mountain cordilleras.Objectives To promote the sustainable conservation of freshwater and marine wetlands and their associated globally important biodiversity in Pakistan. Key Achievements i)Implementation on the recommendations of the previous Mid-Term Review underway. ii)Draft Exit Strategy for Pakistan Wetlands Program prepared. iii)Institutional setup established under the program with management of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s wetlands after completion of the project in 2012. iv)Field assessments completed and GIS mo dels at the federal and provincial levels operational.GIS database being used as a decision making tool for the management of selected wetlands in four sites. v)Overall information of 225 wetlands of Pakistan available in GIS database. vi)National Wetlands Policy approved. vii)Planned trainings completed. 3000 participants from communities, Govt. institutions and academia benefited from these trainings. The project and government personnel have benefited from study abroad component of this programme. iii)A number of customized materials such as a brochure on Uchhali Complex, awareness raising posters in Urdu and English for World Wetlands Day; tree plantation and hunting ethics flyers and promos; documentaries on Water Fowl In Pakistan; Broghil and on Balochistan Coast were produced and disseminated nation-wide. This has led to recognition of three additional wetlands sites under the Global Convention on Wetlands. ix)The implementation of conservation plans at the four wetlands site s in process in collaboration with local village communities. Main Donors The main donors are Royal Netherland Embassy (RNE),UNDP Pakistan, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF), EU and WWF International . Aims The programme aims at the creation of an enabling environment at the national level through capacity-building and training, awareness raising, communication and environmental assessments; developing replicable models in the four wetlands eco-regions of the country including the Makran Coastal Wetlands Complex (MCWC), Central Indus Wetlands Complex (CIWC), Salt Range Wetlands Complex (SRWC) and Northern Alpine Wetlands Complex (NAWC). Coverage areaDespite the generally arid nature of Pakistan's climate, the region supports an estimated 780,000 ha of wetlands that cover 9. 7% of the total surface area of the country. In excess of 225 significant wetlands sites are on record in the prototype Pakistan Wetlands GIS Database developed during th e PDF (B) Phase of this Project. Nineteen of these have been internationally recognized by the Ramsar Convention Bureau as being of global importance. The diverse assortment of natural freshwater and marine wetlands that occur within Pakistan support unique combinations of biodiversity.
Friday, August 16, 2019
In my opinion, I have never before written a recommendation letter where the candidate and the opportunity were such a perfect fit. I have known Janet Lerner for two years now, since she took my introductory course in dinosaurs during her sophomore year. In my long teaching career, I have never met an undergraduate student with such a genuine and focused interest in paleontology, and such a clear aptitude for it. I will demonstrate this by speaking to JanetÃ¢â¬â¢s ability as a communicator, her specific interest in dinosaur paleontology, and her maturity and integrity. Janet informs me that you are seeking a skilled communicator to give tours of your animatronic displays. Even during her sophomore year, Janet was a skilled communicator on the subject of dinosaur paleontology. In my class, for which she received an A, Janet wrote two compositions: one on the roots of the discovery and the characteristics of Deinonychus; one evaluating the defensive capabilities of Euoplocephalus. Janet proved herself not only exceptionally articulate and schooled on the subject at hand, but she also showed herself capable of wielding an argumentÃ¢â¬âmoving from premise to conclusion based on relevant evidence. Janet also did all this with style and flair. I cite excerpts from her papers: Ã¢â¬Å"Previously seen as cold-blooded, pea-brained lizards . . .Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The toe muscles acted as a spring mechanism to flick the claw around towards the back of the foot.Ã¢â¬ For me, such articulations underscore both JanetÃ¢â¬â¢s authentic fascination with dinosaurs and her ability to communicate that excitement and knowledge to others. As an academic advisor to the dormitory where Janet lives, I frequently witness her interactions with others and know first-hand of her community service. Last year, Janet was the elected vice-president in the dormitory, and in this role she was responsible for numerous functions, including faculty/student lunches and a recruiting phoneathon. Janet is well-respected in the dormitoryÃ¢â¬âa popular figure known for her honesty, calm, and kindness. I have seen her handle delicate situations with discretion, and she handles herself in all situations with poise. Finally, Janet has strong convictions tempered by good judgment and reason; she has firm spiritual roots and an active, diverse, social life; she is loyal, committed, and clear-sighted. It is a rare treat to encounter a student as impressive as Janet Lerner, and if you give her the opportunity I am sure you will find her equally impressive. Please do give her your most thoughtful consideration.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
A Separate Peace by John Knowles concerns itself about a young adult named Gene who decides to visit his old school Devon years after the war and recollects his memories of his friend, Phonies. Most of the story is a flashback about the hardships Gene and Phonies had to face growing up in high school during a war. During this flashback, Gene grows through the phase where he must let go of his childhood and mature to adulthood. Throughout the book, Phonies symbolizes childhood and innocence, revealing the main theme of the book: innocence versus maturity.Gene's Journey through his years at Devon shows how he matures and gains a bigger understanding of the world around him. At the beginning of the book, both Gene and Phonies were childish at the beginning of the book. For example, Phonies would wear pink clothing and a school tie as a belt to a headmaster's gathering. Ã¢â¬Å"In his haste that morning Finny had not unexpected used a tie for a belt. But this morning the tie at hand had b een the Devon School tieÃ¢â¬ (20). This shows a level of disrespect of self-image and school-image that usually rash, young children have.Phonies even believes that the war is Just a scam made up by adults to get a profit. There's the bad, there's the good; Just pure black and white. He was even able to rationalize this illogical belief to Gene, and Gene easily gives in. Just like how a child sticks to her favorite blanket or comforting teddy bear to protect her from the nasty in life, Phonies is Gene's way of clinging on to a more immature view to explain life simply. As Gene begins to mature through his years at Devon, he loses Phonies for a while as Phonies recovers from his leg injury.This opens the door to Gene as he sees a new view point on life. He has a sense of guilt that he was the one who trounced Phonies out of the tree, but cannot explain his actions. This new sense of guilt make question if he is truly evil or still innocent. It raises the question that there may be something more than Just cruelly evil or purely good that Phonies seemed to believe earlier. However, Phonies, symbolizing Gene's childhood, tries to pull Gene back to a world of innocence with winter carnivals and games Ã¢â¬â games where there are no losers and everyone wins.Affected by Phonies' tempting simple ideals, Gene finds himself hard to let go of the innocent outlook on life. Still, this prodding question further develops when Gene meets Leper after the effects of the war. Ã¢â¬Å"The army has the perfect word for everything, did you ever think of that? Ã¢â¬ ¦ And the perfect word for meÃ¢â¬ ¦ Psycho. I guess I am. I must be. Am I though, or is the army? Because they turned everything inside outÃ¢â¬ (141 , 149). This quote summarizes the scene when Gene learns about harsh cruelties of war, and begins to realize that the world is bitterer than he had originally thought.Human beings can be evil. This completely transforms his original innocent view on the world. At t he end of the novel, when Gene is of age to be recruited into the war, Gene has learned much about the harsh truth of reality. He begins to move into an acceptance state. When Phonies realizes that it was Gene who had originally trounced the branch, Gene is able to explain that there are certain evils, certain impulses that earlier in the novel. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I don't know how to show you, how can I show you, Finny? Tell me how to show you.It was Just some ignorance inside me, some crazy thing inside me, something blind, that's all it wasÃ¢â¬ (191). Gene accepts that humans are neither fully good nor evil, but normal beings with natural impulses. Knowles shows throughout the book that as one ages and matures, one must lose that innocent childish mentality. Gene slowly pulls apart from Phonies' ideals and moves onto a more complex understanding of human behavior. However, as Gene reaches young adulthood, Knowles cleverly has Phonies pass away, as only to show that in order for Gene to fully mature and reach adulthood, the innocent childhood must completely disappear. Did not cry then or ever about FinnyÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Ë could not escape a felling that this was my own funeral, and you do not cry in that caseÃ¢â¬ (186) The quote even shows that Gene feels that Phonies was part of himself. This is referring to the naive childhood part of Gene. Knowles consistently expresses the theme of innocence versus maturity. He tells us that in order to achieve maturity and achieve the fuller, complex view on life, one has to lose the innocent outlook that usually the young has. Gene moved from a young naive child to a developed young adult.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
perfume COMMUNICATION AND ADVERTISING Ã¢â¬ËCHANEL' Xing Cheng Zhao Qin Zeynep Sezer Chanel Perfume Background: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the different of the man and womanÃ¢â¬â¢s perfume Man perfume is generally vegetation type, lady perfume with floral majority And from perfume bottles can see it, man perfume scent-bottle mostly concise have edge, lady perfume bottles are mostly curve. Man perfume bottle of color with grey,black, blue, give priority to warm color Lady scent-bottle color is rich, have beige, pink, red, etc Key message: This product is a unisex perfume, so it cannot have obvious difference between man and woman. e should invite a artist to design a wonderful scent-bottle,a attractive bottle design will catch consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ eye . this will increase sales volume. Special features: Because to make both men and women can use, so perfume bottle cannot too feminine also cannot too hard, so two paragraphs are designed respectively scent-bottle may be better. Also we need to produ ce this unisex perfume which has unique flavor. This perfume will used by the couples who want to make their relationships strong. Another special feature is the products use an environment friendly materials which are biodegradable.There are still many problems of environmental protection in recent years. Our products with bio-degradable packaging. It is favorable to Protect the environment and canÃ¢â¬â¢t increase waste . Our target consumers: Our new perfume is produced for the young fashion people especially couple between 16-25 years old and who are living in english speaking countries. For our new product, we chose young generation because our product will launch in Valentine's day so we focus the young couples who wants to buy the present for each others. The other reseason of our target is: our product's lower price.We want to make the young people able to buy the product who have small budget. USP: As unique selling points, we focus on price. our unisex perfume is produced with lower price by well-known up market manufacture. Our customers choose our new product on basis of price with brand's quality. Media of Advertisement As a media advertisement using : TV commercialÃ¢â¬â-Use a storyboard to illustrate maybe invite famous star as a spokesperson to act the story. We decided to choose for our TV commercial as Robert Pattinson and Emma watson nowadays who are very famous and England stars.Because this is a unisex perfume, if use of television advertising can describe a love story illustrates this one perfume products. our main idea is reflected in this scent unisex, and romantic, aesthetic. The main storyline is a couple of strange men and women with the same fragrance, in passing, are each other on the same smell attracted, then fell in love! Because this kind of perfume is produced by a well-known up-market manufacturer,So the quality of products is believing,and it already have a lot of loyal customers.The company now wishes to enter the lower end of the market, the productÃ¢â¬â¢s price will be cheaper than other products of company. It is attractive to consumers, Wonderful perfume with cheap price . Radio spotÃ¢â¬â- write the script to make a radio play as a advertisement, including sound effects and music Magazine Ã¢â¬â-use famous star to take some fashion photograph and we are going to make the testers for customers in magazine. We make the people try our perfume in beauty shops and malls. Other mediaÃ¢â¬â- we use e-branding in facebook and the websites.We will inform the customers about our promotions and new product in Chanel's website. And also we use the billboard in street with the photograph's of our brand star. Special promotion This perfumeÃ¢â¬â¢s key point is unisex, so special promotion is the perfume is a couple perfume, if a couple to buy lovers perfume, so that they can be presented a set of new product trial outfit. To launch the new perfume in Valentine's Day activities(make bundling perfume body lotion & shower gel) The products discount activities: buy one get 50% discount for the second one.